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Top 3 Cornell Admissions Essays - Study Notes
book report on cornell essays zeus INFORMATION ABOUT THE GREEK GOD ZEUS. As Critical! Thousands of years ago many people believed in a god named Zeus. Cornell College Engineering Essays! He was considered to be the god of the sky and weather and his image appeared on most Greek coins. The people of essay on the conflict Greece worshipped this idol as their god. Zeus became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Phidias, a famous Greek sculptor and his laborers carved a giant statue of engineering essays Zeus in a special workshop behind the temple. It was made entirely of ivory and gold (Chryselephantine). When finished it sat in the temple on an elaborate throne along with sculptures and paintings of Greek myths and legends. Zeus was the most celebrated statue of ancient times because of its greatness, charm and worth. Zeus was the supreme god and ruler of Olympus. He was known by many titles: Lord of the Sky, the as critical thinking Cloud- gatherer, the Rain-god and cornell engineering essays, Zeus the Thunderer, all of which show which force of nature was considered to be the most important in Ancient World - rain.
In most other mythologies the ruler-god was usually associated with the sun, but in Greece the persuasive climate is cornell college engineering hot and dry making rain the scarce, life-giving force. Zeus was the sixth child born to Cronus and Rhea, Because Cronus, ruler of the Titans and the supreme god at the time, was afraid that one of his children would overthrow him, just like he overthrew his father, Uranus, he swallowed his first five children - Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Demeter and Hestia. This, of persuasive essays written children course, infuriated Rhea and when Zeus was born she tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock wrapped in blankets. Zeus is more powerful than any other god or even all the other gods combined. But, unlike many gods in other religions he was neither omnipotent nor omniscient. He could be, and in fact was, opposed, deceived and tricked by gods and cornell college engineering essays, men alike. His power, although great, was not boundless, Zeus had no control over The Fates and Destiny. Like all Greek divinities, Zeus was subject to pleasure, pain, grief, and anger, but he was most susceptible to the power of Eros - love, which often got the objects of his desire in a lot of trouble with his wife, Hera. Zeus was mighty, glorious, awesome and wise, although he did show a certain degree of thesis production surprising foolishness and naiveness when it came to hiding his love affairs.
Some historians attribute this less than noble behavior of the noblest one of all to the fact that Zeus was most likely a compilation of many supreme gods from different areas. When his worship spread to an area which already worshipped another god, some of that god#146;s qualities as well as his wife or lover were transferred to cornell college engineering Zeus. Aside from the endless affairs Zeus was different from other gods in that he did not participate in the arguments and as critical elements, the resulting petty scheming that made up the daily activities of other gods. Engineering! Being this wise ruler, he also demanded just and righteous action from men. Zeus was however vengeful, as can be seen in database, The creation of cornell college essays man by Prometheus, but only only child family rightly so. Zeus had two special attendants, Nike (Victoria), the essays goddess of victory, and his cup-bearer, Hebe, who was one of his numerous daughters. After Hebe married Heracles, Ganymede replaced her as the cup-bearer for Zeus. In Roman Mythology, Zeus#146; counterpart, Jupiter, was also attended by harvard database, Fama (fame) and Fortuna (luck and chance, Tyche in Greek). Zeus was the guardian of political order and peace. The aegis is his breastplate - so glorious and at college engineering essays the same time awful to on rice production behold that no human could see Zeus in all his magnificence and survive. His weapon is, of course the college engineering essays thunderbolt which he hurled at whoever displeased him.
The thunderbolts were fashioned for him the three Cyclopes who also were the thesis production deciding power in the battle with the cornell Titans. His bird is the Eagle, his tree - the Oak. Dodona was his oracle. His will was revealed by the rustling of oak leaves which was interpreted by his priests. Hera was Zeus#146; wife. She was brought up by the Titans Ocean and Tethys, despite the nickname cow-faced (in some translations - ox-eyed) which seems to have stuck with her through the ages, she was very beautiful, in fact she was one of the three contestants in the Judgment of Paris which led to the Trojan War. But her personality was not as attractive, she was petty and cruel and thinking argument, is most often shown administering some sort of revenge on engineering essays one of Zeus#146; lovers. As Critical Thinking! In one, and cornell college, only one, myth is shown as a noble and gracious protector of heroes and inspirer of heroic deeds, the Quest of the Golden Fleece. As might have been expected Hera#146;s marriage to Zeus was not to her liking, after Zeus had courted her unsuccessfully for harvard, some time, he turned to trickery. Changed himself into essays an injured bird, Hera, feeling sorry for it, held it to her breast to warm it, Zeus, taking advantage of the situation raped her. She then married him to persuasive written children cover her shame.
Zeus was anything but a faithful husband, so Hera, in her turn was not a loyal wife. Once she even convinced the other gods to cornell join in online essay, a revolt against Zeus. Her part was to drug Zeus, and in this she was successful. The gods then bound the sleeping Zeus to a couch taking care to tie many strong knots. They had not, however, planned what to do next and began to cornell college essays quarrel over who would take Zeus#146; place.
Briareus overheard the arguments, still full of gratitude to thesis Zeus, he came to his help and was able to quickly untie the many knots. Zeus sprang from the essays couch and grabbed his thunderbolt. As the gods fell to their knees begging and pleading for mercy, he seized Hera and hung her from the on rice sky with gold chains. She wept in pain all night but, none of the others dared to help her. The weeping kept Zeus up and the next morning he agreed to release her if she would swear never to go against him. She had little choice but, to agree.
While she never again rebelled, she often intrigued against Zeus's plans and cornell engineering, she was often able to outwit him. Hera was the goddess of essays marriage and protector of married women. Her sandals, chariot and throne were all of pure gold, but that was not uncommon with the gods. Her animal is the cow, the peacock, and college engineering essays, sometimes the cuckoo. Hera had her own messenger - the fleet- footed Iris (rainbow). Argos and Sparta were her favorite cities. She had no distinguishing features and can only thesis be identified in artistic representations by either inscription or context. Zeus held a scepter with an eagle on top in its left hand and a winged goddess of Victory (Nike) in its right hand. The flesh was made of cornell college essays ivory with gold drapery covering the image. The Olympians declared Zeus their protector and claimed he presided over the gods on Mt.
Olympus in Thessaly. Once every four years the Olympians held a festival including games to essay on the conflict honor their god. Today nations still meet for the Olympic games but not to honor Zeus. Engineering Essays! The ability of the athletes themselves are considered and essays, rewarded. Legend tells that Zeus was the youngest son of the Titans, Cronus and Rhea. He overthrew his father, Cronus and drew lots with his two brothers, Poseidon and Hades to see who would take Cronus' place.
Zeus won and became the cornell engineering supreme ruler of the gods. His weapon was a thunderbolt and he generally showed compassion but handed out severe punishment to the wicked. Written! Zeus had a number of wives who bore him many children. 1. Metos (wisdom)- was his first wife and she bore Athena. 2. Themis - bore Dike, Eirene, Eunomia, Horae, and Fates. 3. Titaness - bore nine children who became the Muses. 4. Leto - bore the twins, Appolo and Artemis. 5. Hera - became his permanent companion. Zeus was known for having numerous affairs with mortal women producing even more children including Hercules. Zeus was called the master of the gods, and father of men.
The title may be more impressive than meritorious; it seemed applicable to the Zeus of the philosophers who regarded him as a supreme god and sculptor of the universe. Cornell College Engineering! The notion was not primitive; Zeus was master of men as Agamemnon was the half-imposed, half-elected king of the Achaeans. Within this capacity he was the guarantor of contracts, oaths, the protector of guests that was involved in the human activity unfolding beneath his vigilant gaze. The mighty deity was thought to be god of the sky and written children, master of the cornell engineering celestial fire, a side of Zeus' personality that the Homeric verses amply portrayed. As king of heaven he exercised a sort of online providence; but his will was held in check by the immutable laws of fate, and his rule was often limited by these laws and respected. Although inhibited by this restriction, Zeus could govern and follow a policy; his decisions were rarely arbitrary or set forth with passion; they corresponded to hidden intentions, the wisdom of which was ultimately revealed. Engineering! He was the ultimate dispenser of thesis good and evil to all mortals. Zeus was the son of Cronus and his sister, Rhea. Also from this relationship had came Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. But a curse had been put on Cronus, who being of a dishonest and violent nature, when he refused to plicate Gaia after he had turned his father off of the thrown. Instead of setting free his brothers, condemned by Uranus never to see the light of day, Cronus kept them shut away in their subterranean prison, which enraged Gaia.
Gaia vowed that he would know the very fate that he had put upon his father by being dethroned by his own children. So in order to protect himself from this curse he devoured his offspring as soon as Rhea bore them. The first five he swallowed, but when Zeus was born Rhea decided to save the child. With Gaia's help she found shelter in a Cretan cave where she delivered the infant. Then taking a stone Rhea wrapped it in swaddling clothes and cornell college, took it back to Cronus, who, without question, seized it and production, swallowed it. Zeus had been saved, and with the same stroke Cronus sealed his own fate. The young Zeus grew from infancy in the cave being nursed by the nymphs of Amalthea, and protected by the Curetes, which mean Young men, who were warriors with spears and shields that performed a war dance around the grotto. This was to engineering drown out the infant's wailing so Cronus would not discover that he had been tricked and online introduction maker, devour his son. In this instance, it appears, as frequently happened, the cornell essays myth grew from a rite: a ritual war dance was practiced in thinking elements, Crete, also in other Hellenized countries, by people imitating the supposed actions of the spirits of the storm in cornell college essays, the mountains and sky; such dancing probably gave rise to Rhea's ruse. While being protected Zeus matured receiving all of his divine powers. When the time came for Gaia's prophecy to be fulfilled Zeus consort was Metis, a daughter of Oceanus, whose name means Prudence or more often Perfidy.
She gave him a drug that would make his father vomit up the five children that he had previously devoured and still carried in his body. They all emerged, and with these allies Zeus attacked Cronus and his comrades, the Titans. The war in which they battled each other lasted ten years. Finally, Gaia's oracle promised Zeus victory if he would accept help from the monster that Cronus had imprisoned in Tartarus. Zeus agreed, thus permitting Gaia's wish that Cronus disregarded. Essay Introduction Maker! Zeus delivered the engineering monsters and was victorious.
Accounting for this victory were the weapons that the essays written children monsters gave to cornell college essays the young gods that in the future would bear their emblems, which included the maker thunderbolts that the Cyclopes forged for Zeus. Cronus and the Titans were then confined in the depths of the underworld and took the cornell college engineering essays place of the monsters who became their guards. Hesiod's Theogony, written shortly after 700 BC, relates the on the most accepted tradition regarding the birth and childhood of Zeus. But there were others: Arcadia in particular prided itself on having been the cradle of this god. It became easy to deduce the past-Hellenic Zeus was formed by absorbing many local great gods. For example, in Crete itself Zeus probably replaced a vegetation god, since the Cretans exhibited a tomb of Zeus, and few but vegetation deities were believed to be subject to periodic deaths and rebirths. Zeus, the supreme sky-god of the Greeks and a composite figure, was believed to be involved in the daily affairs of people, but was never thought of as a creator deity. As Hesiod notes, the origins of things were related in other myths concerning Ouranos, the sky, and Gaia, the college engineering essays earth.
The Dorian invasion of Greece around 1200 BC resulted in the superimposition of the Indo-European sky father cult on an indigenous Minoan-Mycenaean tradition in on rice production, which the earth goddess was predominant, just as in India the Aryans submerged the Hindus valley culture. Even though traces of pre-Greek tradition are seen in Hera being the college engineering wife of Zeus, it was he as Nephelogeretes, the cloud gatherer, who reigned over all things. He was given other names as well that depicted his different aspects and functions; they included Ombrios, rain god; Kataibates, the descender; Keraunos, lightening; Gamelios, god of marriage; Teleios, giver of completeness; Pater, father; and Soter, savior. Hades, the god of the dead, and Poseidon, the god of the sea, were distinguished from Zeus because their powers were seen as extensions of his in maker, their special realms. They were granted separate mythical forms, yet the writ of the Olympian Zeus, the wolfish, Lykaios, ran everywhere, and cornell college essays, he alone judged the winners and losers. In a similar tradition established by his father, Cronus, Zeus soon took a divine wife. Hesoid says his first wife was Metis, and from this union Athena was born. His second wife was Themis, the incarnation of essay maker law or equality. The first offspring was Horae (the Hours or the Seasons). The Horae were three in number: Eunonia, Dice and college engineering essays, Eirene (Order, Justica and Peace), but the Athenians knew them as Thallo, Auxa and Garpo. Their names evoked the principle stages of vegetation: the as critical elements plant's spouting, growth, and cornell essays, fructification.
However, the child family essay agricultural aspects of the cults gradually took on social concepts, and the spirits who principally presided over the land were transformed into social concepts pertaining to city life. Then came three daughters known as the Fates or Morae: Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos who determined the destiny of every human being. This destiny was symbolized by college essays, a thread, which the first Fate drew up from her distaff, the second Fate wound, and the third Fate cut at the end of the on rice lifespan that it represented was over. Zeus' third wife, Eurynome, bore him three more daughters, the Graces (Charites): Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia. Similar to cornell the Horae the Graces were vegetation spirits and spread the joys of nature in essays written, the hearts of men. They lived on Olympus, together with the Muses, with whom they loved to sing and dance. Like the Muses they were companions of cornell essays Athena and presided over her feminine tasks. Thesis On Rice Production! After this Zeus was companion with his daughter Demeter from which union Persephone was born. Engineering! Then he attached to Mnemosyne who bore him nine daughters, the Muses. Leto was his next wife who bore Zeus Artemis and Apollo.
Next the god Hermes was born to Maia, daughter of Atlas. Questions On The! Last in line of Zeus' divine wives was Hera, his sister, who bore him a son Ares, the college engineering essays god of war, and two daughters: Hebe, who personified youthfulness, and whose task for a long time was to serve nectar at celestial banquets until she became the thesis on rice production wife of Hercules; and cornell engineering essays, Eileithyia, the on rice female spirit presiding over cornell essays, childbirth. Even after marrying Zeus was not a faithful husband, for he loved many mortals. These included Alcmene, who bore him Hercules, and a daughter Semele with whom Zeus fathered Dionysus. Furious by his abandonment, Hera bore the arab-israeli god Hephaestus by herself without the cornell college engineering essays help of Zeus.
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Top 3 Cornell Admissions Essays - Study Notes
magazine ad essay Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Cornell Essays! Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the family essay class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the essays patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year.
The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of persuasive written Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. College Essays! Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the essay questions on the arab-israeli conflict actual text of cornell essays a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in November of only child family 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to cornell her. Thesis! The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators.
to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of engineering essays our work. 3. The resolution never asked for harvard dissertations the creation of cornell college socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. Argument Elements! The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for engineering divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is only essay a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian.
She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the college essays hand wringing. Harvard Database! “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and engineering his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege.
So he moved back to essay questions on the arab-israeli live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder.
Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the cornell college engineering essays social history of the Victorian era to conflict birdwatching to cornell engineering essays the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the essay on the kind of engineering essays college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by persuasive essays professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from cornell engineering University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition.
But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is dissertations a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to college engineering make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of harvard dissertations college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the cornell same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for.
I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in on rice production, my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. Engineering Essays! College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination).
Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and questions conflict of the engineering essays Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. As Critical! Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Cornell! Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it).
Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Child! Like most complaints of cornell essays this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. On Rice Production! To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the engineering past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the online essay introduction problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the cornell college engineering essays politicians and thinking elements the students.
This narrative does not account for the history of cornell essays college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in persuasive written, the national debate was minimal. Cornell College Essays! To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and essay introduction both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on engineering, both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of persuasive children funding, therefore, the cornell college solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of thinking argument elements college, we must first look at its true purpose.
A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of college columns in essays written, the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out college of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is on rice production his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on cornell college, IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and thesis on rice unintended consequences of college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students.
College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to cornell college engineering essays create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is thesis production where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of engineering college, that college is on the arab-israeli conflict created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of cornell engineering college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. Only Family! Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans.
Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. Cornell College Engineering! The importance of education today is a growing factor because the thesis production future of this country depends on cornell college essays, the students in introduction maker, college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to college engineering essays reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from thinking argument elements work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in college, hopes of obtaining a career after graduation.
Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into essay deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of essays college students doubled from essays written 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to engineering improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Essay Questions On The! Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make.
The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on essays, which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is as critical elements why college is so important to essays stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only argument make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in engineering, college is the only child most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by college essays change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Persuasive Essays Written Children! Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the cornell college engineering essays rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise.
When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for as critical thinking an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the cornell engineering will to only child essay pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the cornell college engineering leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper.
I am writing it for on rice New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to college engineering work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in essays written, general; people just don’t care.
If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the college essays previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to only our generation. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the essays people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the persuasive essays children 60s, it seemed to cornell college essays be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is persuasive essays that people do not what the problems really are.
The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to essays get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is persuasive written evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college engineering college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that.
In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the on the arab-israeli conflict first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in cornell college engineering, which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to conflict see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for cornell college one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Family Essay! Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at cornell engineering essays, Vietnam. Online Essay Introduction! My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and cornell college engineering talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus.
When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the as critical fight his country was in. Bands of engineering essays students were scared, there was a draft in database, effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and cornell college forming opinions on only essay, the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the cornell college world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of harvard database others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of college essays this away from current students. On The Conflict! In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world.
There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and college essays that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is thinking argument partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object.
But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is cornell college essays how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the online essay introduction maker surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Cornell College Engineering! Most kids in thinking elements, my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Engineering! Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan.
By high school, the importance of getting into essays a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to cornell college essays be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the thesis lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for cornell an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. Harvard Dissertations Database! As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of college engineering essays apart from the only family rest of the world. Cornell College Essays! Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. Child Family! You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job.
Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. College Engineering Essays! I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in dissertations database, Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school).
In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and cornell essays the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. Harvard Database! He’s right about that, but that is nothing to cornell essays be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. Only Child! We’re a new breed.
It is interesting to read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. College! For my sake, and I’m sure for harvard the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and cornell essays fun. Persuasive Essays Written! My friends argue that things have changed in cornell college engineering, the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. Harvard! The war, for example. Cornell Essays! Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about only child classes and cornell engineering stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at essay arab-israeli, which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college.
It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Engineering! Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to thesis production pay for cornell college essays the next semester. To be honest, when it came to essays children college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the cornell college engineering option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines.
The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Essay Questions Arab-israeli Conflict! Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of college hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes.
A choice between higher education and harvard dissertations database higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at cornell engineering, school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in database, the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. Cornell Engineering! College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Online Introduction! Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the cornell college essays pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in written children, their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system.
In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to college the condition and harvard database pursuits of engineering his life.” He speaks to database the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to cornell college the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of introduction darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to college live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is as critical argument not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable.
Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at cornell engineering essays, least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the online maker time of cornell engineering Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in on rice production, which it exists but to pursue truth. Engineering! Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective.
And, since truth is their goal, many of elements them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. Cornell Essays! This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. This is child family essay largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to cornell feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. Essay! It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the cornell engineering university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for family this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the essays United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and online essay introduction maker meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to engineering keep their students pacified while educating them in as critical thinking elements, accordance with principles which the cornell college engineering essays students may not share. Thus, they (and the essay questions on the arab-israeli conflict students) learn that it is easier to college ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to harvard dissertations database everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . Engineering! . . says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond.
This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the as critical argument Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the cornell college engineering occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the essay questions arab-israeli winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. Engineering Essays! (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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one page biography Dr. C. College Engineering Essays? George Boeree. Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born March 20, 1904, in the small Pennsylvania town of Susquehanna. As Critical Thinking? His father was a lawyer, and college engineering his mother a strong and introduction maker intelligent housewife. His upbringing was old-fashioned and hard-working. Burrhus was an active, out-going boy who loved the outdoors and building things, and actually enjoyed school.
His life was not without its tragedies, however. Cornell College? In particular, his brother died at the age of 16 of a cerebral aneurysm. Burrhus received his BA in English from persuasive, Hamilton College in upstate New York. He didn’t fit in very well, not enjoying the fraternity parties or the football games. College? He wrote for school paper, including articles critical of the school, the harvard database faculty, and essays even Phi Beta Kappa! To top it off, he was an atheist -- in on rice, a school that required daily chapel attendance. He wanted to be a writer and cornell essays did try, sending off poetry and short stories. When he graduated, he built a study in child family, his parents’ attic to concentrate, but it just wasn’t working for him. Ultimately, he resigned himself to cornell essays writing newspaper articles on labor problems, and lived for a while in Greenwich Village in New York City as a “bohemian.” After some traveling, he decided to go back to school, this time at Harvard.
He got his masters in psychology in 1930 and his doctorate in 1931, and stayed there to do research until 1936. Also in database, that year, he moved to Minneapolis to teach at the University of Minnesota. There he met and soon married Yvonne Blue. They had two daughters, the second of which became famous as the first infant to be raised in one of Skinner’s inventions, the engineering air crib. Although it was nothing more than a combination crib and playpen with glass sides and air conditioning, it looked too much like keeping a baby in an aquarium to catch on.
In 1945, he became the chairman of the psychology department at Indiana University. Family Essay? In 1948, he was invited to cornell college come to Harvard, where he remained for the rest of his life. He was a very active man, doing research and guiding hundreds of doctoral candidates as well as writing many books. Questions Arab-israeli? While not successful as a writer of fiction and college engineering essays poetry, he became one of our best psychology writers, including the book Walden II , which is a fictional account of a community run by harvard database, his behaviorist principles. August 18, 1990, B. F. Skinner died of leukemia after becoming perhaps the most celebrated psychologist since Sigmund Freud. B. F. Skinner’s entire system is cornell engineering essays based on operant conditioning . The organism is in essay, the process of “operating” on the environment, which in ordinary terms means it is bouncing around its world, doing what it does. During this “operating,” the organism encounters a special kind of stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus , or simply a reinforcer. This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the operant -- that is, the cornell college behavior occurring just before the reinforcer.
This is essay questions operant conditioning: “the behavior is cornell college followed by a consequence, and the nature of the thesis consequence modifies the organisms tendency to essays repeat the family behavior in the future.” Imagine a rat in a cage. This is a special cage (called, in fact, a “Skinner box”) that has a bar or pedal on one wall that, when pressed, causes a little mechanism to release a food pellet into the cage. The rat is bouncing around the cage, doing whatever it is rats do, when he accidentally presses the bar and -- hey, presto! -- a food pellet falls into the cage! The operant is the behavior just prior to cornell the reinforcer, which is the food pellet, of course. In no time at argument elements all, the rat is furiously peddling away at the bar, hoarding his pile of cornell college engineering essays pellets in the corner of the cage. A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future. What if you don’t give the rat any more pellets? Apparently, he’s no fool, and after a few futile attempts, he stops his bar-pressing behavior. This is called extinction of the online operant behavior. A behavior no longer followed by the reinforcing stimulus results in a decreased probability of that behavior occurring in the future.
Now, if you were to essays turn the pellet machine back on, so that pressing the bar again provides the rat with pellets, the behavior of essays children bar-pushing will “pop” right back into existence, much more quickly than it took for the rat to learn the cornell engineering behavior the first time. This is because the return of the reinforcer takes place in the context of a reinforcement history that goes all the way back to the very first time the rat was reinforced for introduction, pushing on cornell college engineering essays, the bar! Schedules of reinforcement. Skinner likes to tell about how he “accidentally -- i.e. Questions? operantly -- came across his various discoveries. For example, he talks about running low on food pellets in the middle of a study. Now, these were the days before “Purina rat chow” and the like, so Skinner had to cornell essays make his own rat pellets, a slow and tedious task. So he decided to reduce the number of reinforcements he gave his rats for whatever behavior he was trying to condition, and, lo and behold, the rats kept up their operant behaviors, and at a stable rate, no less. This is how Skinner discovered schedules of thesis on rice production reinforcement ! Continuous reinforcement is the original scenario: Every time that the engineering rat does the behavior (such as pedal-pushing), he gets a rat goodie. The fixed ratio schedule was the first one Skinner discovered: If the essay on the rat presses the pedal three times, say, he gets a goodie. Or five times. Engineering Essays? Or twenty times.
Or “x” times. Argument? There is a fixed ratio between behaviors and reinforcers: 3 to 1, 5 to 1, 20 to 1, etc. This is cornell college essays a little like “piece rate” in only child family essay, the clothing manufacturing industry: You get paid so much for so many shirts. The fixed interval schedule uses a timing device of some sort. If the rat presses the bar at least once during a particular stretch of time (say 20 seconds), then he gets a goodie. If he fails to do so, he doesn’t get a goodie. But even if he hits that bar a hundred times during that 20 seconds, he still only gets one goodie!
One strange thing that happens is college that the rats tend to “pace” themselves: They slow down the rate of only essay their behavior right after the cornell engineering reinforcer, and speed up when the time for it gets close. Skinner also looked at thinking argument elements variable schedules . Variable ratio means you change the “x” each time -- first it takes 3 presses to get a goodie, then 10, then 1, then 7 and so on. Variable interval means you keep changing the college engineering time period -- first 20 seconds, then 5, then 35, then 10 and so on. In both cases, it keeps the rats on their rat toes. With the variable interval schedule, they no longer “pace” themselves, because they can no longer establish a “rhythm” between behavior and reward.
Most importantly, these schedules are very resistant to extinction. It makes sense, if you think about it. If you haven’t gotten a reinforcer for a while, well, it could just be that you are at a particularly “bad” ratio or interval! Just one more bar press, maybe this’ll be the one! This, according to Skinner, is the persuasive written mechanism of cornell college engineering gambling. You may not win very often, but you never know whether and when you’ll win again.
It could be the very next time, and database if you don’t roll them dice, or play that hand, or bet on that number this once, you’ll miss on the score of the century! A question Skinner had to deal with was how we get to more complex sorts of behaviors. He responded with the idea of cornell college essays shaping , or “the method of successive approximations.” Basically, it involves first reinforcing a behavior only vaguely similar to questions conflict the one desired. Once that is cornell established, you look out for variations that come a little closer to what you want, and so on, until you have the child family animal performing a behavior that would never show up in ordinary life. Skinner and his students have been quite successful in cornell college essays, teaching simple animals to do some quite extraordinary things. Thesis Production? My favorite is teaching pigeons to bowl! I used shaping on one of cornell engineering essays my daughters once. She was about three or four years old, and was afraid to go down a particular slide. Harvard Database? So I picked her up, put her at the end of the cornell engineering essays slide, asked if she was okay and if she could jump down. She did, of course, and I showered her with praise.
I then picked her up and put her a foot or so up the slide, asked her if she was okay, and essay asked her to slide down and jump off. So far so good. I repeated this again and again, each time moving her a little up the slide, and cornell backing off if she got nervous. Eventually, I could put her at thesis production the top of the essays slide and she could slide all the thinking argument way down and jump off. Unfortunately, she still couldn’t climb up the essays ladder, so I was a very busy father for a while. This is the same method that is written used in the therapy called systematic desensitization , invented by another behaviorist named Joseph Wolpe . Cornell College Essays? A person with a phobia -- say of spiders -- would be asked to come up with ten scenarios involving spiders and panic of one degree or another.
The first scenario would be a very mild one -- say seeing a small spider at harvard a great distance outdoors. The second would be a little more scary, and so on, until the tenth scenario would involve something totally terrifying -- say a tarantula climbing on your face while you’re driving your car at a hundred miles an hour! The therapist will then teach you how to relax your muscles -- which is incompatible with anxiety. After you practice that for a few days, you come back and you and the therapist go through your scenarios, one step at a time, making sure you stay relaxed, backing off if necessary, until you can finally imagine the cornell tarantula while remaining perfectly tension-free. This is a technique quite near and only child dear to college essays me because I did in fact have a spider phobia, and did in fact get rid of it with systematic desensitization. It worked so well that, after one session (beyond the original scenario-writing and conflict muscle-training session) I could go out an pick up a daddy-long-legs. Cool. Beyond these fairly simple examples, shaping also accounts for the most complex of college behaviors.
You don’t, for example, become a brain surgeon by as critical, stumbling into cornell an operating theater, cutting open someone's head, successfully removing a tumor, and being rewarded with prestige and a hefty paycheck, along the lines of the rat in the Skinner box. Instead, you are gently shaped by your environment to enjoy certain things, do well in school, take a certain bio class, see a doctor movie perhaps, have a good hospital visit, enter med school, be encouraged to drift towards brain surgery as a speciality, and persuasive written children so on. This could be something your parents were carefully doing to you, as if you were a rat in a cage. But much more likely, this is something that was more or less unintentional. An aversive stimulus is cornell engineering the opposite of a reinforcing stimulus, something we might find unpleasant or painful. A behavior followed by as critical argument, an aversive stimulus results in engineering essays, a decreased probability of the behavior occurring in the future. This both defines an as critical thinking argument elements, aversive stimulus and describes the form of conditioning known as punishment . If you shock a rat for doing x, it’ll do a lot less of x. If you spank Johnny for throwing his toys he will throw his toys less and engineering less (maybe).
On the other hand, if you remove an already active aversive stimulus after a rat or Johnny performs a certain behavior, you are doing negative reinforcement . If you turn off the electricity when the essay arab-israeli conflict rat stands on his hind legs, he’ll do a lot more standing. If you stop your perpetually nagging when I finally take out the cornell engineering garbage, I’ll be more likely to take out the garbage (perhaps). Family? You could say it “feels so good” when the aversive stimulus stops, that this serves as a reinforcer! Behavior followed by the removal of an cornell, aversive stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future. Notice how difficult it can be to distinguish some forms of negative reinforcement from positive reinforcement: If I starve you, is the food I give you when you do what I want a positive -- i.e. a reinforcer? Or is it the removal of a negative -- i.e. the aversive stimulus of hunger? Skinner (contrary to some stereotypes that have arisen about online essay introduction behaviorists) doesn’t “approve” of the use of aversive stimuli -- not because of ethics, but because they don’t work well! Notice that I said earlier that Johnny will maybe stop throwing his toys, and that I perhaps will take out the garbage? That’s because whatever was reinforcing the bad behaviors hasn’t been removed, as it would’ve been in the case of extinction. This hidden reinforcer has just been “covered up” with a conflicting aversive stimulus. So, sure, sometimes the child (or me) will behave -- but it still feels good to throw those toys.
All Johnny needs to do is wait till you’re out of the room, or find a way to blame it on his brother, or in some way escape the consequences, and he’s back to his old ways. Cornell College? In fact, because Johnny now only gets to essays enjoy his reinforcer occasionally, he’s gone into cornell college essays a variable schedule of reinforcement, and he’ll be even more resistant to extinction than ever! Behavior modification -- often referred to as b-mod -- is the therapy technique based on Skinner’s work. On Rice Production? It is very straight-forward: Extinguish an undesirable behavior (by removing the reinforcer) and replace it with a desirable behavior by reinforcement. It has been used on cornell college, all sorts of psychological problems -- addictions, neuroses, shyness, autism, even schizophrenia -- and works particularly well with children. There are examples of back-ward psychotics who haven’t communicated with others for years who have been conditioned to harvard database behave themselves in fairly normal ways, such as eating with a knife and fork, taking care of their own hygiene needs, dressing themselves, and so on. There is an offshoot of b-mod called the cornell college essays token economy . This is used primarily in institutions such as psychiatric hospitals, juvenile halls, and prisons. Certain rules are made explicit in the institution, and on the arab-israeli behaving yourself appropriately is rewarded with tokens -- poker chips, tickets, funny money, recorded notes, etc. College? Certain poor behavior is also often followed by a withdrawal of these tokens. Dissertations Database? The tokens can be traded in for desirable things such as candy, cigarettes, games, movies, time out of the institution, and so on. This has been found to be very effective in maintaining order in these often difficult institutions.
There is a drawback to token economy: When an “inmate” of one of these institutions leaves, they return to an environment that reinforces the kinds of behaviors that got them into the institution in cornell college, the first place. Essay? The psychotic’s family may be thoroughly dysfunctional. The juvenile offender may go right back to “the ‘hood.” No one is engineering essays giving them tokens for eating politely. The only reinforcements may be attention for “acting out,” or some gang glory for robbing a Seven-Eleven. In other words, the environment doesn’t travel well! Skinner started his career as an English major, writing poems and essay questions on the arab-israeli conflict short stories.
He has, of course, written a large number of papers and books on behaviorism. Engineering? But he will probably be most remembered by the general run of readers for essay questions on the arab-israeli, his book Walden II , wherein he describes a utopia-like commune run on his operant principles. People, especially the cornell college religious right, came down hard on his book. They said that his ideas take away our freedom and dignity as human beings. Persuasive Written? He responded to the sea of criticism with another book (one of his best) called Beyond Freedom and Dignity . He asked: What do we mean when we say we want to be free? Usually we mean we don’t want to be in college engineering essays, a society that punishes us for doing what we want to do.
Okay -- aversive stimuli don’t work well anyway, so out with them! Instead, we’ll only use reinforcers to “control” society. And if we pick the right reinforcers, we will feel free, because we will be doing what we feel we want! Likewise for dignity. When we say “she died with dignity,” what do we mean? We mean she kept up her “good” behaviors without any apparent ulterior motives. As Critical Elements? In fact, she kept her dignity because her reinforcement history has led her to see behaving in that dignified manner as more reinforcing than making a scene. The bad do bad because the bad is cornell essays rewarded. The good do good because the harvard good is rewarded.
There is no true freedom or dignity. Right now, our reinforcers for good and bad behavior are chaotic and out of our control -- it’s a matter of having good or bad luck with your “choice” of parents, teachers, peers, and other influences. Cornell College Essays? Let’s instead take control, as a society, and on rice design our culture in such a way that good gets rewarded and college engineering bad gets extinguished! With the right behavioral technology , we can design culture . Both freedom and dignity are examples of what Skinner calls mentalistic constructs -- unobservable and so useless for a scientific psychology. Other examples include defense mechanisms, the unconscious, archetypes, fictional finalisms, coping strategies, self-actualization, consciousness, even things like hunger and thirst. The most important example is what he refers to as the homunculus -- Latin for “the little man” -- that supposedly resides inside us and online essay maker is used to cornell college essays explain our behavior, ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self, and, of course, personality. Instead, Skinner recommends that psychologists concentrate on observables, that is, the environment and our behavior in it. Whether you agree with him or not, Skinner is a good writer and fun to read. Thesis On Rice? I’ve already mentioned Walden II and Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971).
The best summary of his theory is the book About Behaviorism (1974).
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CONVERSING AROUND LOVECRAFT: Leslie S. Klinger and Neil Gaiman. Editor’s Note: Leslie S. Engineering Essays! Klinger and as critical thinking argument Neil Gaiman appeared at Magers Quinn Booksellers in Minneapolis on November 9, 2014, to cornell essays, discuss Klinger’s latest book, The New Annotated H. P. Lovecraft (Liveright, $39.95) . Harvard Dissertations! Klinger, also the author of T he New Annotated Sherlock Holmes and The New Annotated Dracula , has also edited three volumes to college engineering, date of The Annotated Sandman (Vertigo). What follows is a slightly edited transcript of the on rice, pair’s conversation and audience QA. Neil Gaiman: So, Les Klinger, who I’m about to bring on, is my lawyer. And this is actually true. Cornell Engineering! About a decade ago, a little more than a decade ago, a very nice man named Michael Dirda, who used to be the literary editor of the Washington Post , invited me to a meeting of the Baker Street Irregulars—which is the mysterious organization of argument elements wastrels and college engineering essays retired judges and people who choose to online essay, believe that Sherlock Holmes exists and who know all about him. I learned of the existence of cornell college this from reading an Isaac Asimov essay when I was about thirteen, and harvard dissertations database as far as I was concerned, the cornell college essays, Baker Street Irregulars were kind of like unicorns—so I was going to have to go and have dinner with the unicorns. In order to do this, I rented a tuxedo, because I’m not really a tuxedo person, and I walked in harvard dissertations database incredibly awkwardly, and I saw Michael Dirda, which was a relief because he was the only person there I knew, and essays he said, “This is Leslie Klinger.” And I liked Les immediately; he looked after me, he introduced me to persuasive written, people, he knew everybody. At that time he was annotating Sherlock Holmes, and cornell engineering essays he did it brilliantly.
And then he did Dracula brilliantly. Somewhere in there he phoned me up and said, “Neil, I should do Sandman.” And I said, “No, that can wait ‘til I’m dead.” [Laughter] But one day I called him and said, “I’m starting to forget things, so that means we have to do it now.” And also somewhere in online essay introduction maker there, I discovered that, actually, Les would say things to me things like, “Do you actually have a will?” And I’d go, “Yeah, it’s twenty years old now, and it was written when I was living in cornell college engineering essays a different country and questions on the conflict married to somebody else, but yeah, I have a will.” He pointed out that doesn’t actually count, so I asked, “Will you do it?” And he said, “Yes.” And so he is technically my lawyer, and he is making me do grown-up things that need to cornell college engineering, be done. Essays Children! He knows much more than I do about everything and is one of the nicest people in the world—Leslie. Leslie Klinger: Thank you, although I have to say that when I was talking about doing this tour with another bookseller, he said it was really nice of me to college engineering, be so supportive of young writers like Peter Straub and Neil Gaiman, and only child family helping them out by letting them have appearances with me. [Laughter] Neil didn’t mention that he wrote the college engineering, introduction for my Dracula book, and it’s terrific. So we wanted to have a conversation about essay questions on the arab-israeli conflict, Lovecraft. By the way, I wanted to point out college engineering that this book is the new annotated Lovecraft because there are other annotated versions: S.T. Joshi, probably the world’s greatest Lovecraft scholar, has done three small collections of annotated stories with his own original annotations—I’m not very original, I’ve decided to bring in lots of scholarship, here—and pictures.
NG: So the biggest difference, it seems to essay questions arab-israeli, me, between Lovecraft and some of your earlier annotations, is cornell college engineering essays that with Sherlock Holmes, you began annotating the stories from the intellectual position that Sherlock Holmes existed, that Watson existed, and only family essay that Conan Doyle was just writing down stuff that had happened to them, and cornell college engineering wherever it didn’t actually make sense, you needed to explain why. LK: Right. This is what Sherlockians call “the game.” It’s very productive of interesting avenues of study. Dissertations Database! When you approach the stories that way, you get a lot more juice out of them, because if these are historical documents, then we can justify examining in essays minute detail the cultural and historical elements that serve as background in essay on the the stories. Plus, Sherlockians love to argue about engineering essays, “Why did Holmes do that instead of this,” “He got this case wrong,” and online essay introduction maker so on. So that was the approach, there.
For Dracula , I did a mixture. Cornell College Engineering! Lovecraft was different, but not quite as different as you might imagine, because Lovecraft himself said that to write a great supernatural tale, it was critical that it be done like a hoax. You had to write it so that it was ninety-nine percent realistic; one percent could be the supernatural thread that ran through it. And so, there’s that incredible amount of persuasive detail to work with: historical, cultural, scientific, amazing stuff in the background. NG: Let me just get a quick show of hands, in terms of what we’re going to talk about next: does anyone here—and do not be embarrassed to essays, raise your hand—not know who H. P. Lovecraft was, or not know much about him? [People raise their hands.] Okay, well, that’s absolutely enough of you— LK: Like my entire family, when I said I was doing this book, they said, “ Who? ” [Laughter] NG: So let’s put Lovecraft into some kind of context. Les, who was H. Thesis! P. Lovecraft? LK: Well, he was unfairly tagged as a recluse, but he was a strange—and that’s a good word, I think—a strange gentleman who was born in 1890 and died in college 1937; he was born and raised in Providence, Rhode Island, and spent all but two years of online essay introduction maker his life there.
He fancied himself to some extent as a sort of reincarnation of an cornell college engineering eighteenth-century gentleman. This is probably what many of us writers who don’t sell large quantities of books say, but he disdained the commercial aspects of writing; he actually wrote at some point that if only one reader read his works, that was okay with him, because he wasn’t writing his material for a commercial audience. He was a polymath, a prodigy who began writing poetry at the age of on rice seven. He wrote an astronomy column in cornell college engineering his early teens for the local newspaper—he loved science and astronomy. He did not go to as critical thinking argument, college. He formed a circle of friends through a group called the United Press Association, which was a strange, pre-Internet sort of Facebook group, if you will.
It was a group of amateur writers who published their own journals and circulated them among themselves, and mainly wrote for each other. They wrote fiction, essays, poetry, everything. Cornell Engineering Essays! And Lovecraft became the as critical argument, president of the association—so much for the recluse!—but he was mainly communicating with these people via correspondence. He began quite early probably what is today the most prolific career of letter writing of anyone in history. NG: And he wrote, like, 50,000-word letters! LK: Absolutely. Some of the letters are seventy pages long. It’s estimated he wrote probably as many as 100,000 letters during his lifetime. Some of them are postcards with cramped little handwriting squeezing in as many words as he could, and some of cornell them are very long.
They ranged from his ideas about ice cream and cats and ancient history, to philosophy, politics, and aesthetics. His correspondence included people like Robert E. Howard and Clark Ashton Smith and arab-israeli other early fantasy writers, and they discovered that they had great interest in the same things. Cornell College! That correspondence is being published slowly; there was a Selected Letters that came out in the 1960s, and now we’re up to maybe fifteen volumes of letters that have been published—and there are still dozens more to go. It’s fascinating to read them. But, Lovecraft wrote only as critical, eighty-five stories. Like I said, he was a complete commercial failure. His stories appeared in Weird Tales , which was a pulp magazine. There are some modern equivalents, I guess, but back in engineering those days it was the primary outlet for writers of these genre.
And it paid terribly; he was getting twenty-five dollars or so for a story. In order to help make a living, he began doing what he called revisions: he would take on stories written by other people—he probably could’ve helped you, Neil! [Laughter]—and for online essay maker, a fee, he would edit and even rewrite the work. Some of the stories that came out cornell are probably ninety-five percent Lovecraft, five percent author. NG: Didn’t he write with Harry Houdini? LK: He did. Houdini people don’t necessarily know, but he was a movie star, he had all these adventure films, and family he wanted to write a sort of a spy story about a cult under the pyramids, and Lovecraft was commissioned to write it. But in general he was very poorly published, and there was only one book ever published in his entire lifetime: a single story called “The Shadow Over Innsmouth.” It wasn’t until his death in college engineering 1937 from stomach cancer, a really ugly death that he wrote about in some detail in as critical argument a “death diary,” that his friends decided he needed to be out there, in cornell engineering essays the world. Child Family! And they started it.
LK: Indeed, August Derleth from Sauk City, Wisconsin, who formed a small company with a friend named Donald Wandrei. Derleth had never met Lovecraft, but they had corresponded extensively; he was quite young. He and Wandrei, who was a good friend of Lovecraft, decided to cornell college engineering essays, put out essay a book called The Outsider and cornell essays Other Stories . They sent it around to critics, and they actually got some traction with reviews. Then there was more and more. NG: And they named their press Arkham House. LK: Yes, after the town in which a lot of Lovecraft’s stories take place.
It published other things as well; happily, Derleth was also a great Sherlockian. He wrote a wonderful series called The Solar Pons Stories , also published by Arkham House. But Lovecraft started to get broader and broader attention. Persuasive Written! And then along came Edmund Wilson. Engineering! Edmund Wilson was one of the great critics in America—just ask him! [Laughter]—and he wrote a piece about Lovecraft’s writing: he hated it. Hated it, hated it. I think of the movie Amadeus in which the emperor says there are too many notes. That’s sort of how Wilson felt about Lovecraft’s stories: too many words. Lovecraft deliberately cultivated an antiquarian style and used a lot of big words, and that’s probably a quarter of my footnotes—just explaining what those words mean. NG: I remember as a thirteen-year old trying to read Lovecraft and online essay introduction maker having to go and cornell college find not just the dictionary, but the harvard dissertations, Oxford English Dictionary—the one in two volumes that came with a magnifying glass—in order to find out what words like “batrachian” meant.
Frog-like. The people of Arkham tended to be squamous and batrachian. Cornell! [Laughter] LK: So Wilson hated him, and he put Lovecraft—again, happily—into the same dark corner as the Baker Street Irregulars; adults who were interested in that sort of material were not worth his attention. Fortunately we got past that, and Lovecraft was really discovered by on rice the academics in college essays the 1970s, when pop culture became an persuasive written accepted curricular item, and now he’s taught in college engineering essays a wide range of courses. The real canonization of Lovecraft occurred when Peter Straub edited the Library of America edition, which came out in 2005, I think, and essay questions on the the fact that Norton was willing to do my annotated book in their series is sort of college a second boost. Essay Arab-israeli! So it’s an college engineering amazing arc. Harvard Dissertations Database! There is a brilliant introduction to the book written by Alan Moore, by college engineering the way, in which he talks about this. So I want to talk about you and Lovecraft, too.
I read Lovecraft very late in life—“late in persuasive written children life” sounds like now!—but you read Lovecraft as a teen. NG: I did. I was about eleven or twelve. It was a wonderful time to be a lover of fantastic fiction. In America, and to a lesser degree, in cornell college England, you had publications which brought Lord Dunsany, James Branch Cabell, all these people back into family, print. NG: This is the very early ’70s. Granada Books in England had an amazing color artist named Bruce Pennington who did these beautiful covers of books that they brought back into print by Clark Ashton Smith. So I picked up the Clark Ashton Smith books and kind of college liked them, but they mentioned on the back H. P. Thesis! Lovecraft.
So I found a copy of engineering essays a book called The Outsider and Other Stories . That first story just made me ridiculously happy—and it’s an essay on the conflict incredibly simple story! It’s about a guy who’s sort of climbing up this tower, trying to get away from the dark and the horribleness; he gets to the top of the cornell engineering essays, tower and comes out, but when people see him and scream at essays written him, he realizes that he is a horrible monster, and he goes back into the tower and starts climbing down. Though a story like that sounds vaguely risible, as executed by Lovecraft it’s beautiful. At that point, reading those stories, I remember being a snotty enough eleven-year-old that I wasn’t very impressed with Lovecraft’s sort of sub-Lord-Dunsany stories, because I’d read Dunsany at that point: I remember going, “You’re not as good.” But then I loved “The Call of Cthulhu,” I was just absolutely fascinated with the feeling that you were only engineering essays, seeing the tip of the iceberg. I think that was the online, thing that attracted me as a teenager to Lovecraft—the idea that he had this huge self-contained universe that perhaps he understood, and things linking the stories, like the Necronomicon of the Mad Arab, Abdul Alhazred—all of these sort of college engineering essays weird things that would crop up that you never quite understood, because it would all drive you mad when you read it, and then you would die at the end of the story, often while writing. As Critical Thinking! And you would die in italics. I’ve got to say, I was always filled with admiration for Lovecraft’s narrators, because they keep writing—they’d be going, “The thing is coming up the stairs. I can hear it. Oh my God, the door is opening.” And you think, “Just put the pen down and run!” LK: Well, that early exposure explains why you’re you, and I’m a lawyer. [laughter] Lovecraft’s narrators tend to be very ordinary people. They’re people who looked into things that they probably should have left alone . And he really did that well in these stories.
NG: Well, some of engineering essays them had just moved into houses. Questions! There was a lot of at-risk real estate warnings: “You have rented the wrong flat.” LK: So, “The Outsider” is one of the stories that everybody’s already yelled at cornell college me about not including, and a few others that did not make it were “The Shunned House,” “The Rats in the Wall,” and online essay introduction maker “The Terrible Old Man,” but the stories that are included are, I think, some of cornell college engineering essays his very best: “Call of Cthlulhu,” “The Shadow Out of on rice production Time,” “The Shadow Over Innsmouth,” “Charles Dexter Ward,” and engineering essays my very favorite, At the Mountains of Madness . And I’ll tell you now, as my apology, Norton has this strange attitude: they love literature, they love books, but they actually feel like they want to sell them. This is very bizarre for a publisher. So there was a size issue: in order to keep it as a $39.95 book, it needed to on rice, be merely 860 pages with 300 photos, that sort of thing. So we had to cut something.
What I ended up doing as a sort of unifying principle was to include stories that relate to what Neil described as Lovecraft’s universe, or mythos, as it’s known. Cornell! Some of them are very early stories—“Dagon,” “Beyond the Wall of thesis Sleep”—I think those are important to see his evolving technique and his growth, how he mastered the technique in engineering essays later stories. Those are the first stories in which we see the mythos appear. So I’m sorry that it wasn’t everything, but it couldn’t be, without being at least two volumes. NG: One of the as critical thinking argument, things that fascinates me about college essays, Lovecraft, and I’m one of the people who this has affected, is the urge to go and play in the sandpit, as it were.
One of the very first things I ever wrote was a short story called “I, Cthulhu,” which was when I was probably nineteen or twenty. I’d been reading a lot of Robert Nye, weird autobiographies in weird voices, and I just loved the idea of doing Cthulhu. So, I sat and wrote that, and sent it off to . . . nobody, because I was nineteen. Essay Maker! I wound up getting it published almost accidentally in a magazine called Dagon in my mid-twenties, when I was asked if I had anything Lovecraftian sitting around, and essays I said, “I’ve got this thing.” I gave it to them, and I added a very long letter afterward, a sort of harvard afterward about the correspondences between H. Engineering! P. Lovecraft and P. Harvard Dissertations! G. Wodehouse. [Laughter] I think I was— LK: This is essays not a joke, by thinking elements the way. There are others— LK: Okay, but now, it’s become a whole— NG: —it’s become a thing. Engineering Essays! I remember coming up with “Scream for Jeeves,” “It’s the Call of Cthulhu, Jeeves,” [Laughter] . . . Also, I’m talking about P. G. Wodehouse’s H. Thinking Argument Elements! P. Lovecraft musical, “Cthulhu Summer.” I remember even writing some lyrics for it . . . I may just be a bird in college engineering a gilded cage. A captive like a parakeet or dove. But when a maiden meets a giant lipophage.
Her heart gets chewed and broken, like that old adage. —I’m just a fool who. Thought that Cthulhu. Could fall in love. LK: I’m sure everyone in essay on the arab-israeli the audience knows about my favorite Lovecraft crossover piece that you wrote, the engineering, award-winning, incredible “A Study in maker Emerald,” in which Holmes meets Cthulhu. NG: That was a grownup one. College Essays! As an questions adult, I wrote two Lovecraftian pieces; one was a story called “Only the End of the World Again,” and then some years later Michael Reaves called me up, and college engineering essays said, “I’m doing an anthology of Sherlock Holmes meets Cthulhu stories. Can you do something for me?” That seemed like the most fundamentally stupid premise for dissertations database, an anthology I’d ever heard, because everything about college essays, Holmes is about rationality, everything about Holmes is the idea that things can be understood, that you can look at somebody and deduce that they are a thirty-five year old Latvian housepainter with a deaf left ear and an incontinent cocker spaniel. And everything about Lovecraft is about looking at somebody and persuasive written not understanding that they are a remnant of a dead god from a formless cosmos whose very real appearance will drive you into madness and beyond.
Trying to engineering, crossbreed these things is like trying to crossbreed a greyhound with Gibbon’s The History of the harvard dissertations, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . . Engineering! . they don’t breed. And then I thought, “Well, hang on. What if I actually made my entire world Lovecraftian and set a Holmes figure in there with the forces of rationality? What would happen then?” There are very few stories that write themselves, but that was one of those lovely occasions where the story kind of did all the work for me. And then I went on to collect Hugo Awards and production things for it, and look very smart, and cornell feel very awkward, because I had no idea how I’d done it. LK: That also birthed another subgenre. I don’t know if you know the computer role-playing game Sherlock Holmes: The Awakening , in which there are serious Lovecraft elements, and things come out that Watson probably didn’t think were going to . . . On The Arab-israeli Conflict! you started that, too.
They probably didn’t send you any money. . . . NG: No, they didn’t, but that’s alright. LK: I want raise a topic before anyone in the audience does. There’s been a great deal of controversy recently about the World Fantasy Awards. The statue given to cornell engineering essays, the award winners is a bust of Lovecraft. There has been a proposal to change that because Lovecraft was a serious racist.
LK: This is something that is very troublesome about Lovecraft, because when you read his correspondence, it’s very clear that he hated Jews, blacks, Hispanics, Portuguese, Italians—just about anybody who wasn’t an Anglo-Saxon Protestant from questions arab-israeli conflict, Rhode Island. Cornell Essays! He actually married a Jewish woman, which is online introduction kind of hard to college, understand, because she had assimilated—she was an “okay” kind of Jew, because she didn’t look Jewish or act Jewish, he said. He had a couple friends who were Jewish who had similarly assimilated. When he went to live in New York for two years, he hated it. It was like being sent to Hell, to be surrounded by on rice the crowds of what he called mongrels—and this was a very serious part of engineering his character. He supported Hitler in persuasive children the early years; he was also a New Deal supporter, interestingly, and a proponent of eugenics. NG: When I was a kid, I remember reading a wonderful novel by Norman Spinrad—a very fine science fiction writer, not as well-known as he should be—called The Iron Dream . In the engineering, book’s alternate universe, there was a novel written by a former housepainter named Adolf Hitler who had become a science fiction writer, and essay arab-israeli then come to America and actually achieved some popularity in the ’40s and cornell ’50s as a science fiction writer; his great novel was called Lord of the Swastika . I remember reading it and persuasive written children being kind of both shocked and educated at the places that fantasy and horror take their energy, or can take their energy, from, and the idea of college engineering essays this Hitlerian figure writing an essentially standard science-fiction/science-fantasy/fantasy novel with a lone hero facing the mutant hordes as being all about revulsion at argument the Other. Lovecraft’s fiction, it seems to college essays, me—without wishing to get into a kind of harvard dissertations database pop psychology—takes enormous amounts of college engineering energy from essay, several places: one is just absolute revulsion and fear of cornell essays other people who are not like him.
There’s obviously a lot of written very weird stuff about women in there too—you would never want to sit down with Lovecraft and say, “So, tell me how you feel about female genitalia.” I suspect he would start pulling out words like “eldritch” and “batrachian.” LK: Fishy! I think you’re right about that. College Essays! I think psychologists, biographers, etc., have said the outsider was, of course, Lovecraft, himself. NG: Which is one reason why I think that story resonates so well with any awkward eleven year-old. You read The Outsider and you go, “This is me!
I am the creature! That is why nobody likes me, and I’m reading books!” LK: When you read Lovecraft’s stories, there is very little—with the persuasive essays children, exception of a story called “The Horror at Red Hook”—overt racism. There’s a little bit in “Herbert West,” but it’s covert: they’re not black people or Asian people or people of color, they have gills! So I think you’re right; the cornell college essays, idea that they’re outsiders, and despicable, I think really powers the database, fiction. NG: It is an engine, and it’s not a good thing, but without it, I don’t think we’d have the fiction. Cornell College Essays! The H. Only Child! P. Lovecraft award that is given, the World Fantasy Award, is a sort of Easter Island head . . . . LK: By the way, in my book I have a picture of the Easter Island statues, because you can compare it to the picture of Lovecraft, and they really do look alike. Which opens up all kinds of strange questions. NG: Most people I know that have gotten one of these are very uncomfortable with them. I was made a wonderful little bowler hat for mine. I know someone who had a Rastafarian hat with little curls.
I would not mind at all if they changed the award. The point is it’s the World Fantasy Award, not the Lovecraft Award. And it’s not about Lovecraft, it’s about fantasy. LK: I think that racist element really does power his stories. College Engineering! Another factor is that this is persuasive essays a man who had both his parents die in an insane asylum—the same insane asylum, by the way—and was deeply worried that he was going to find himself going insane at engineering some point. NG: Fear of only insanity, even more than fear of monstrous things from beyond the galaxy to whom we are but infinitesimal specks of dust in engineering the cosmic void, is the biggest thing that powers Lovecraft—can you imagine, the body horror of someone who may well be terrified he has some sort of syphilis? LK: Yes, which is what his father died of, and questions on the arab-israeli he called it a mental breakdown. We should also mention that there is cornell college engineering essays a mention of Sherlock Holmes in the book, because I, of online introduction course, wrote it.
Lovecraft was a Sherlockian, living in those wonderful years when the stories were appearing in The Strand magazine, and he was a teenager at college engineering essays just the right time. He had a little Sherlockian club in on rice which he was Holmes and everyone else had sort of lesser roles . . . and some of the stories clearly have imagery drawn from the stories. The story called “The Hound” is definitely an homage to The Hound of the Baskervilles . College Engineering! For better or for thesis production, worse, there are always Sherlock Holmes connections for me, I see them everywhere. We wanted to leave time for questions from the audience . . . Cornell! does anyone have any questions? Q: Why H. Harvard Database! P. Lovecraft? What drew you to him, his style?
LK: Mainly it was that Norton wanted to college engineering, do this. They didn’t ask me to do it, but when I suggested Lovecraft, they said, “Yes, that’s a great idea!” I think the reason they reacted that way, and the reason I enjoyed it so much, is because, like Holmes, like the vampire stuff, like Sandman , there is an intense fan following. Essay On The Conflict! There is a very, very strong community of Lovecraftians, and that enthusiasm out there has led to a great body of scholarship—not the quantity of stuff that’s in cornell the Sherlock Holmes world, but nonetheless, a lot of amateur writing about Lovecraft that has appeared in various journals. That’s the most important part of the answer, the database, community aspect. You have to understand the process for nonfiction writers; unlike Neil, I go to the publisher and cornell college essays say, “I’d like to only family essay, write a biography about this,” and they say, “Nah.” And I go, “Well, what about this?” and they say, “Nah!” Then, finally, they’ll say, “Yes.” As opposed to Neil, who says, “Well, I have this child here, would you like to adopt him?” [Laughter] It’s a long process, and some of the books I’ve proposed over the years might seem a little odd. Neil wanted me to do The Jungle Book . I thought, “Wow, that’d be great! All we have to do is convince a publisher to actually publish it.” I wanted to do The Lodger , I don’t know how many of you know that wonderful 1913 novel by Marie Belloc Lowndes; it’s a retelling of Jack the Ripper. I would love to do that. But these are books that are not in the mainstream.
NG: I suppose Lovecraft is interesting in that he has this weird sort of quantum position where he’s absolutely outside of the mainstream, and yet somehow the cornell college engineering, mainstream has wandered over to only child essay, the little puddle where he lived, and college engineering flooded over him, and now he is everywhere. LK: Yes, and that is a common thread in the books that I’ve done—people saying, “Oh, maybe that is essay questions on the conflict good stuff!” Look at engineering how hot Sherlock Holmes is right now. On Rice! And Dracula was discovered in the ’70s by the academics, who said, “Wow, this is cornell college great literature.” My next book is on another one of those books, Frankenstein , now adopted by every academic curriculum in the country for queer studies, Marxist studies, feminist studies, etc.—why? People don’t really know why. There are probably more Cthulhu Christmas ornaments sold than copies of Lovecraft’s books, but he’s pervaded culture now—and why?
I wanted to look at argument that. Q: Did you go to college, Providence? LK: Yes, absolutely. My first trip was the NecronomiCon that was held that summer. Online Maker! There’s another one next year for the 125th anniversary of Lovecraft’s birth. One of the cornell college essays, things I loved about only child, doing the college essays, research was to see the incredible amount of research that Lovecraft had done. So a story like “Charles Dexter Ward” is so rich in local history that it’s great fun.
I have a few photographs of my own, but I have a couple friends who took hundreds of photographs of Lovecraftian sights, and we’ve included a hundred of them in the book. This is essay maker one of the cornell engineering, great treats of harvard dissertations database doing annotated things—I think of it as reverse engineering. Cornell College Engineering! When I was doing Sandman , I felt it would be cheating to argument, pick up the phone—since I couldn’t call Arthur Conan Doyle or Bram Stoker—to call Neil and say, “What does this mean?” and “Why is this here?” and all that. NG: Why have you got him reading a book of engineering essays poetry that, according to thesis on rice production, everything I could find, was not published for another eight months? [Laughter] LK: Well, OK, I nailed you on cornell college essays, that one. But by family and large it was really fun to do the research and say, “Look! There’s where Neil got that!” You won’t believe the amount of research he did in writing these comics on a monthly schedule, it’s an incredible amount of research! One of my favorites is from one of the essays, first Hob Gadling stories, in which a minor character, an old woman prostitute named Lush Lou, wanders in, and essay introduction I said, “Boy, does that ring a bell.” I discovered it was from a Victorian account of cornell essays life on the streets published in thinking elements 1850, and you had read it, and used it! So that’s a great joy to me, finding this sort of cornell engineering essays minutiae, if you will.
Q: Are there any movies that capture the spirit of Lovecraft? NG: I would, oddly enough, just for online, the ending, point to college, Cabin in the Woods . Even though it’s funny, and it’s postmodern, the ending is essays written children so purely, deeply Lovecraftian. I think that’s the reason why Lovecraft found it so hard to be published during his lifetime. The underlying spirit of American short story publishing was this wonderful can-do, we will work it out, people are smart, we will conquer things—it’s all about beating things, and winning. Lovecraft is all about cornell college essays, going, “Even if we beat this one thing, we are but tiny specks doomed in an incomprehensible universe which hates us.” [Laughter] Which is sort of out of keeping with the can-do spirit of America.
LK: The pulp tradition was very much that brave young men saving large-breasted women sort of thing; Lovecraft hated the other writers in pulp, he didn’t want to be in that company, but it was the only place he could get published. NG: I would say In the database, Mouth of Madness , that was an interestingly Lovecraftian movie—I wish Kim Newman were up here, because he would probably spout a bunch of films that you’d never have thought of—“Oh, Tarkovsky!” LK: I just did a talk at the H. P. Cornell College Engineering Essays! Lovecraft Film Festival, and only family essay I said, “I don’t think there’s ever been an adaptation of a Lovecraft story that has ever been successful.” They’re very difficult to film, because of the way the story’s told. But my favorite is John Carpenter’s The Thing , which is as Lovecraftian as it gets. I have high hopes for cornell engineering essays, Guillermo del Toro’s At the Mountains of Madness , if it ever gets made. Q: What do you think of Lovecraft incorporating the writing of earlier writers in his mythos?
LK: So, first of all, he was disappointed in himself for not being more creative. At one point of his career he said, “I see my Poe stories and dissertations I see my Dunsany stories—where are the Lovecraft stories?” Clearly, he was a great student of supernatural literature. He wrote a masterful essay called “Supernatural Horror in Literature.” NG: A really, really good essay. It describes a lot of the threads. You can see people like Arthur Machen and how his story, “The Great God Pan,” is something that Lovecraft fed off. LK: Absolutely. He was very open to being influenced by cornell college engineering essays other writers. NG: He was also good about crediting. I never feel that feeling that you sometimes get from writers where you go, “Oh my god, you nicked that from here.” He was always very open and generous about his influences. The essay sends you to only essay, places you might not otherwise go—he sends people to cornell college engineering, writers like Arthur Machen.
LK: And he was very unselfish about as critical, his own writing, as well. This was really the first time we ever saw a shared universe where Howard and Ashton Smith were freely sort of exchanging characters. NG: The incredibly young Robert Bloch who wrote Psycho was—what was he, sixteen?—when he was corresponding with Lovecraft. LK: Right. So these writers were very willing to co-create things, and cornell essays pre-Internet, you know. It’s now fairly common to see shared universes, and what we would call fan-fic. This was professional fan-fic, I guess. NG: One of the as critical, loveliest things about engineering, his willingness to questions on the arab-israeli, share, as well, is that it meant that after his death, nobody who owned nor claimed to own nor claimed to control Lovecraft’s fiction ever stopped other people from doing something with the Lovecraft world, which I think is really kind of cornell college cool. Dissertations Database! That genie was already out of the lamp. Q [from a 5-year-old girl]: I liked Coraline . NG: Really?
It wasn’t too scary? LK: I take full credit for it. [Laughter] NG: You know, it’s funny, because Les and I were having a cup of coffee before coming here to talk, and we were talking about H. P. Lovecraft in my stories; I was saying there are big, obvious ones, like “A Study in Emerald,” or whatever. Cornell Engineering Essays! But there are also much less obvious ones, and Coraline was one that I pointed to and said, “Really, that’s probably my most Lovecraftian story, even if it is a Lovecraftian story for little girls of all ages.” LK: I have a problem with my grandchildren who want to read my books and I generally steer them away from them and point to questions arab-israeli, Neil’s books instead.
I said, “But not Sandman . You can’t read Annotated Sandman yet. Cornell Essays! Sorry.” Lovecraft probably, you know—baby Cthulhu? There’s a market there! But he didn’t go there. Online Essay Introduction! [Laughter] Q: What’s your favorite Lovecraft story? LK: It’s At the Mountains of cornell college engineering Madness , for me.
That’s really almost not a horror story, it’s really a science-fiction story more than a horror story. If you want to put a label on it. NG: Julius Schwartz, who was an editor at DC Comics, once told me very proudly that he had been Lovecraft’s agent, and that was Lovecraft’s only harvard, major professional sale, and he had done it. I quoted him on that in engineering some introduction, and S.T. Database! Joshi wrote an essay explaining that I was an idiot, [Laughter] and pointed to cornell college engineering essays, all these other places, and I’m going, “Well, it’s the only family, guy who told me that who may have got it wrong.” LK: It was in cornell engineering Amazing Stories . As Critical! It wasn’t a Weird Tales story, it was in Amazing Stories , which was a science-fiction magazine. The reason I think that that’s his best story is because it does so well what I was talking about earlier, this sort of “hoax” element. It reads for most of the story like almost an cornell academic report on a scientific expedition. The quantity of science in there is harvard dissertations incredible—and, as far as I can tell, as a non-scientist annotator, accurate about the geological aspects of the Antarctic, and paleontological things, and cornell engineering essays so on.
It builds up to this incredibly scary finish. So that’s my favorite. NG: My favorite is probably “The Outsider,” because it was the first, and it was like being hit over the back of the head with an H. P. Lovecraft-shaped brick. Although, I think that beyond that there’s two others: “The Call of Cthulhu” itself, which, again, is a very strange story—it’s built up from a newspaper report, and it doesn’t really have a plot and a storyline and as critical characters, it just convinces you, which I love—and then there’s a story, and cornell college essays I’ve forgotten the name of the story, it was actually finished by thesis on rice August Derleth. It’s one in which Derleth didn’t know that the correct spelling of “caiman,” the alligator, is C-A-I-M-A-N, not C-A-Y-M-A-N. LK: Was that “The Lurker at cornell the Threshold”?
NG: Yes, definitely something creepy. And it has a Gaiman. These Gaimans hang everywhere, people start turning into Gaimans. I was particularly fond of online essay introduction maker that. [Laughter] LK: It’s not in the collection, it’s classed as a revision, and there’s none of the revisions in cornell college engineering essays the book.
There is an appendix that lists them all, if you want to track them down. Q: Did either of you young guys see the essay questions conflict, Night Gallery episode with Professor Peabody’s last lecture? Q: Lovecraft is a stuttering student. Derleth keeps picking on the professor, who keeps saying you cannot pronounce the name of . . Essays! . And at the very end the elements, professor pronounces it, and becomes a monster. NG: I think that’s why I never actually worry about how you actually say “Cthulhu.” Les is much more accurate than I am, he just says [mumbles incoherently] [Laughter], I just say Ka-Thu-Lu, because that looks about right. When I wrote my story “I Cthulhu”—you can find it online, I never collected it because it was never really good enough—the first line in Cthulhu dictating his autobiography is “Cthulhu, they call me. Great Cthulhu. Nobody can pronounce it right.” [Laughter]
The idea is, if ever you actually pronounce it correctly, rather like pronouncing the name of cornell engineering essays God in Jewish Kabbalistic thinking, the world ends, and you definitely turn into as critical argument, something incomprehensible, with too many tentacles. LK: In a letter, Lovecraft tried to essays, answer how you do pronounce it, and child he did explain that it was “Klu-lu,” but he also said, essentially, who cares? It’s an unpronounceable name; that was the whole idea. It was not a human tongue that uttered this name. NG: It’s something weird and whistle-y. Batrachian. Cornell Essays! [Laughter]
LK: Well, I want to thank this young writer for coming up to help me today. Thesis On Rice Production! Thank you. Engineering Essays! Do you want to as critical argument elements, say something about not signing, or. . . ? LK: You could sign my books! [Laughter] NG: I will sit next to engineering essays, Les, and we’ll see how this goes. They do have books by me here. It will make a small—but beautifully large—independent book shop with rent to pay probably very happy if you buy my books. LK: And you’ll want Klinger signed books, because they are really rare. [Laughter] NG: Thank you so much for such great questions, everybody. Click here to as critical argument elements, purchase The New Annotated H. P. Lovecraft at your local independent bookstore. Rain Taxi Online Edition Winter 2014-2015 | © Rain Taxi, Inc. 2015.
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12) No traveling allowance will be paid to you on account of your journey undertaken for joining the services of the company for this appointment. 13) Be it clearly understood that no benefit of cornell engineering, past service or any other similar benefit of any previous employment, in whatever form manner it may be, shall be available to you in this employment being offered pursuant to this letter. If the above terms and conditions are acceptable to you, please return the only child essay, duplicate of this letter duly signed in token of college engineering essays, your acknowledgement and having accepted all the terms and conditions mentioned herein. You are also advised to report for appointment at the Company’s Office address not later than _______(DATE). If we do not receive your acceptance on this letter of appointment before ______(DATE OF JOINING), it will be construed that you are not interested in accepting this offer and the same shall stand automatically withdrawn, without any further reference to you. Similarly, if you do not report for duty by the aforesaid date _____(DATE OF JOINING) , it will be construed that you are not interested in accepting this offer and the same shall stand automatically withdrawn, without any further reference to you. I wish you all the very best and wish all success in your tenure with the company. We are in receipt of an invitation from ____________ wherein they have invited us to attend ________programmes. The details are as under:
We may if approved, send the following to attend the same: Sub: Resignation of _________(personnel) from BDEL. ___________ (NAME OF THE EMPLOYEE) was appointed on ______( DATE OF APPOINTMENT) in the capacity of _________ ( DESIGNATION) and promoted as ___________ ( DESIGNATION) on _______ ( DATE OF PROMOTION ) in BD emerald India Limited.We are in receipt of child family, his resignation letter dated _______ whereby he has requested to be relieved from Company duties and other formalities by ________ ( RELEIVING DATE) by engineering, issuing him relieving letter and experience certificates. As per thesis production clause 5, paragraph 2 of the engineering essays, appointment letter one month’s prior notice is required. However, in view of essays children, his contribution, sincerity and dedication to the organisation, we may if approved, accede to essays, his request for harvard dissertations database, waiving 10 days notice period. We may, if approved, handover the current responsibility and cornell college engineering, profile of database, _________ ( NAME OF THE RESIGNING EMPLOYEE) to ____________( NAME OF THE EMPLOYEE WHO IS TAKING OVER). The resignation letter dated _______ of Mr/Miss.___________________, has been accepted by the Competent Authority with effect from close of cornell college engineering essays, office hours on ____ DATE.
Accordingly Mr/Miss. _____________will, henceforth , not eligible for any benefits of employment at questions conflict, UTI Infrastructure and Services Limited . However, on clearance of all dues payable by him to cornell, the Company, he/she stands relieved from the production, services of BD Emerald India Limited with effect from cornell college engineering essays close of office hours on ____ DATE. 1. Name _______________________________________ E Code __________________. 2. Designation _____________________________(Officer for Contractual arrangement / Consultant/ Regular Employee) 3. Period Of Leave: From _________to ________ No. of Days__________________________. 4. Contact Address with Phone No_________________________________________________.
5. Reason For Leave: ___________________________________________________________. ( Recommending Officials Signature -Manager HR ) (For Office Use Only) (Resumed Duties on _________________________________) Leave Availed So far_____________days Leave balance_____________days. It is put up for orders whether leave for ____________ days from ___________to __________________ may be granted, as applied for. 1. Total Period of absence include prefixed /suffixed /intervening Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays must not exceed 30 days. 2. Change in leave address must be intimated promptly. 3. Absence without permission must be avoided. We are in receipt of an invitation from ____________ wherein they have invited us to attend ________programmes. Questions Arab-israeli Conflict? The details are as under: We may if approved, send the following to attend the same:
Sub: Resignation of college, _________(personnel) from BDEL. ___________ (NAME OF THE EMPLOYEE) was appointed on ______( DATE OF APPOINTMENT) in the capacity of _________ ( DESIGNATION) and promoted as ___________ ( DESIGNATION) on _______ ( DATE OF PROMOTION ) in BD emerald India Limited.We are in receipt of harvard, his resignation letter dated _______ whereby he has requested to be relieved from college Company duties and other formalities by on rice production, ________ ( RELEIVING DATE) by issuing him relieving letter and experience certificates. As per clause 5, paragraph 2 of the appointment letter one month’s prior notice is required. However, in view of cornell college essays, his contribution, sincerity and dedication to thinking argument elements, the organisation, we may if approved, accede to his request. We may, if approved, handover the current responsibility and profile of _________ ( NAME OF THE RESIGNING EMPLOYEE) to cornell college essays, ____________( NAME OF THE EMPLOYEE WHO IS TAKING OVER). The resignation letter dated _______ of as critical thinking argument, Mr/Miss.___________________, has been accepted by cornell college essays, the Competent Authority with effect from close of office hours on ____ DATE. Accordingly Mr/Miss. _____________will, henceforth , not eligible for any benefits of employment at thinking elements, BD Emerald India Limited. However, on clearance of all dues payable by him to the Company, he/she stands relieved from the services of BD Emerald India Limited with effect from close of office hours on ____ DATE. 1. Name _______________________________________ E Code __________________. 2. Designation _____________________________(Officer for cornell college, Contractual arrangement / Consultant/ Regular Employee)
3. Period Of Leave: From _________to ________ No. of on rice, Days__________________________. 4. Contact Address with Phone No_________________________________________________. 5. Reason For Leave: ___________________________________________________________. ( Recommending Officials Signature ) (For Office Use Only) (Resumed Duties on cornell engineering, _________________________________) Leave Availed So far_____________days Leave balance_____________days. It is put up for orders whether leave for ____________ days from ___________to __________________ may be granted, as applied for.
1. Thesis On Rice Production? Total Period of absence include prefixed /suffixed /intervening Saturdays, Sundays and cornell engineering essays, public holidays must not exceed 21 days. 2. Change in leave address must be intimated promptly. 3. Absence without permission must be avoided. (NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE EMPLOYEE) We invite a reference to our earlier letter dated 27th October, 2006.
Your services in the ISHTAA are discharged with effect from 30 th April 2007. We appreciate your contribution . Requested by Division / Department: Activity: Function: Technical / Non-Technical. Justification (if any) Duration of on rice, engagement (Years / Months): Employee Count of the department: ____________. I have Attached PF ESI Challan form formats.