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Method section of a research paper

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Global Classroom#8217;s 2017 World Citizen Essay Contest. **The goal of the World Citizen Essay Contest is to of a paper, promote discussion among students, teachers, families, and community members about the ways that individuals can effect positive change in the global community.* 2017 Essay Contest Prompt: You have won an all-expenses-paid trip to the destination of your choice. In 1,000 words or less, describe where you will go (and why), and explain what steps you will take to make sure that your travels are truly sustainable. Congratulations to our 18th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest winners! Students were celebrated at a public awards ceremony on May 2nd with keynote speaker Katherine Cheng, head of the global corporate citizenship and community relations for Expedia, Inc. Read all of the winning World Citizen Essays here. 2016 World Citizen Essay Contest. In the 2015-2016 school year, the World Affairs Council partnered with Water1st International; our prompt asked students to think critically and be engaged as global citizens by addressing one of the most critical issues of our time: The worldwide water crisis. Congratulations to our 17th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest winners! The student winners were celebrated at skills writing a public awards ceremony on May 5th, with keynote speaker and method former CEO of the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation Jeff Raikes, and featuring the founder of Water1st International Marla Smith-Nilson. CLICK HERE to watch Jeff Raikes#8217; keynote at our Essay Contest Awards Ceremony.

CLICK HERE to watch the Q A with Jeff Raikes and Marla Smith-Nilson. On Dromology. Read all of the winning essays here. Section Of A Research Paper. 2015 World Citizen Essay Contest. Essay. Congratulations to our Winners: Washington State students in method section of a paper, grades 3 through 12 were invited to think like a foreign news correspondent with the following essay prompt: In our increasingly interconnected world, it is cango, important to method paper, be informed of issues and events around the globe in order to better understand and engage with the and politics an essay people around us. If you were a foreign news correspondent, where would you like to section, be assigned? What story would you cover and speed and politics on dromology how would you gather the section paper necessary information?

Why do you think this is an important story to tell? Read the winning essays here. 2014 World Citizen Essay Contest. On June 5th, Rick Steves joined the World Affairs Council and college essay help houston essay contest winners to speak on the value of method thoughtful travel and present students with their certificates and bronowski essay prizes. Congratulations to our winners:

Read about the way these students are thinking about the world beyond our borders! Find excerpts and the full essays here. Method Of A Research Paper. Washington State students in grades 3-12 were asked to respond to the following prompt: Through his book, TV and footnotes of an essay radio shows, guided tours, and public speaking engagements, Rick Steves h a s introduced Americans to many parts of the world. His recent book, Travel as a Political Act , suggests th a t travel may be important for reasons that go beyond a dream vacation. Rick Steves has traveled to Iran, Israel, and section paper Palestine among other places, with the goal of making connections with and understanding the of an concern s of the people who live there. If you traveled with the same goal, where would you go and method of a research why?

What would you hope to made, learn? How will traveling to section research, this place and meeting its residents broaden your perspectives why is footnotes, this important? We received nearly 450 essays this year! Thank you to everyone who participated. And thank you to research paper, our volunteer judges!

2013 World Citizen Essay Contest. We celebrated our winners at a special event at the Seattle Asian Art Museum with Nancy Pearl on buy custom, May 30th. At the ceremony, the method of a research paper winners received their cash prizes, a certificate, and a copy of Nancy Pearl’s book, Book Crush . Congratulations to college essay help houston, our 2013 World Citizen Essay Contest Winners: 2012 Games Without Borders Youth Challenge. Congratulations to the winners of our First Annual Games Without Borders Youth Challenge! In lieu of the World Citizen Essay Contest, Global Classroom encouraged students to apply their knowledge of and passion for research paper gaming while learning about world issues. Skills Writing. Since fun, educational games about global topics are hard to find, GC gave Puget Sound students a new challenge: create a game that young people would love eto play and that would raise awareness about a global topic or issue.

The winners were: Children of method section of a research paper Change by McKenna Sevruk (7th grade, Tahoma Middle School)Middle School Division: Microloan Adventures by Luke Johnson, Christo Pamboukas, Joey Peterson, and Reed Stever (7th grade, Tahoma Middle School) Animal Rescue: The Video Game by Kaylene Stocking and Sarah Yerrace (9th grade, Timbercrest Junior High) Let#8217;s Trade! by Alina Amkhavong, Hannah Madani, Cristina Martinez , and Sahar Mohammad (10th grade, Kent-Meridian High School) Syria at Risk by Sopheaktra Danh and Melody Northcutt (12th grade, Aviation High School) To learn more about this contest, visit our Games Without Borders Youth Challenge webpage. 13th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest (2011) Congratulations to our 2011 World Citizen Essay Contest Winners! On the bronowski essay occasion of the method of a research paper 60th anniversary of the World Affairs Council and the upcoming 50th anniversary of the Seattle World’s Fair, the World Affairs Council embarked on skills writing, a two-year partnership with the method section Seattle Center Foundation. An Essay On Dromology. The question for the 2011 World Citizen Essay Contest was: #8220;Looking back over paper, the last sixty years, please identify a Puget Sound-based innovation that has left its mark around the world.

Explain why and how this innovation had an impact beyond the United States. (This impact can be related to bronowski essay, the arts, sports, music, popular culture, technology, civic action, global health, education, manufacturing, etc.)#8221; Thank you to all of the section of a research paper students who submitted essays and to the outstanding judges who volunteered their time to read them all! Our special congratulations to the following students who were the top finalists in each category. Click on the links below to made, read excerpts from our winning essays. On June 23rd, 2011 World Citizen Essay Contest winners were interviewed about global innovation on Public Exposure SCAN-TV. Watch the 30 minute interview here.

12th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest (2010) The question for the 2010 World Citizen Essay Contest was: #8220;Despite the method section research paper ever increasing importance of understanding the histories, governments, and cultures, of people from speed and politics an essay on dromology, all over the world, many news organizations in recent years have had to cut their foreign correspondent staff. Method Section. If you were a journalist on buy custom, an international assignment, where would you like to go, what issue would you cover, and of a why? #8220; Thank you to the 390 students who submitted essays and the 78 judges who spent time reading them all. Essay Contest winners were being honored at a Global Classroom Celebration on May 17th, 2010. An Essay. Our special congratulations to the following students, top finalists in each category. The question for the 2009 World Citizen Essay Contest was: #8220;Imagine that you are Hillary Rodham Clinton, the new U.S.

Secretary of State and head of the U.S. Department of State, which has a mission to create a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world for the benefit of the American people and the international community. Describe one international issue you think is important today. Why do you think this issue is important to both the U.S. and the world? Considering the mission of the U.S. Department of State, what would you do about this issue?#8221; Thank you to the 215 students who submitted essays and the 78 judges who spent time reading them all. Essay Contest winners were being honored at research a Global Classroom Celebration on May 27th, 2009. Our special congratulations to the following students, top finalists in each category. 10th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest (2008) The question from the 2008 World Citizen Essay Contest was: #8220;In April, His Holiness the speed an essay on dromology 14th Dalai Lama (1989 Nobel Prize winner for method of a Peace) will journey to Seattle to discuss and celebrate compassion in made, action with Seattle-area youth, educators, and policy makers. Definition: #8216;Compassionate acts are generally considered those which take into account the suffering of others and method section research paper attempt to alleviate that suffering as if it were one’s own.#8217; (From Wikipedia as cited by the organization Seeds of skills Compassion) A) Considering the definition above, identify an individual who has been moved by section of a research compassion to take action on a problem.

Describe his or her work. How did he or she demonstrate compassion? B) Now, imagine yourself as an adult. Following in this individual’s footsteps, what international issue would you want to writing, tackle? Why is this issue important? What steps might you take to resolve the issue? Why does this issue awaken compassion in you?#8221; Thank you to method section of a research paper, the over of an essay, 200 students who submitted essays and the 33 judges who spent time reading them all.

Essay contest winners were honored at a special reception and award ceremony on June 17, 2008. Our special congratulations to the following students, top finalists in each category. copy 2013 World Affairs Council | Your link to paper, the world.

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nightly homework $1 for section research paper Officer Barry - PAST DUE. $1 for footnotes Officer Barry - PAST DUE. $1 for Officer Barry - PAST DUE. $1 for Officer Barry - PAST DUE. $1 for method of a research paper Officer Barry - PAST DUE. Shepard Visit permission slip - DUE MONDAY. Planning for quarter 3 essays - child labor - is due on bronowski essay Tuesday. If you are behind, you may need to work on this outside of school at this time. Lesson 3 DARE sheets past due. We will be having DARE lessons on Wednesday mornings for the next five weeks.

Lesson 3 DARE sheets past due. We will be having DARE lessons on Wednesday mornings for section research the next five weeks. Signed DARE sheets due tomorrow (introductory letter and Lesson 1). We will be having DARE lessons on Wednesday mornings for the next seven weeks. Baby pictures - digital copies needed - either saved to student's google drive or on a jump drive. Make-up reading logs are due Monday, April 3. Houston! Students who owe me a reading log are responsible for reading 7 days/140 minutes. Please address only new comment ideas!

Students up to method research paper date on their reading logs may read for leisure at this time! Make-up reading logs are due Monday, April 3. Students who owe me a reading log are responsible for reading 7 days/140 minutes. Please address only cango paper new comment ideas! Students up to date on their reading logs may read for leisure at method, this time! Complete TenMarks lesson Hierarchies of 2D Shapes (this is a new module). Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for and politics an essay 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on research performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is speed and politics an essay on dromology always something to spend time on research paper to reinforce skills we are working on in class!

Complete TenMarks lesson Hierarchies of college essay, 2D Shapes. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on of a research paper the Ten Marks website nightly for essay houston 10-15 minutes whenever possible. Method! They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on cango paper to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Hierarchies of 2D Shapes.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and of a research paper, games. Cango! There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Hierarchies of section research paper, 2D Shapes.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for cango term paper 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is section of a research differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and footnotes, games. Research! There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Classifying Triangles.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on college essay help houston the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is method section paper differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to essay houston spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Classifying Triangles. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for method section of a paper 10-15 minutes whenever possible.

They have class assignments, personal work (which is of essay writing differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on method of a research to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Reading logs are due Tuesday, March 7. Students are responsible for reading 7 days/140 minutes. Please address only new comment ideas! Complete TenMarks lesson Classifying Triangles.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on speed and politics an essay on dromology the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on performance and section of a research, ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Categorizing 2D Shapes. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible.

They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and help houston, games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Categorizing 2D Shapes. Method Section Of A Research! Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for skills of essay writing 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is section of a research paper differentiated based on help houston performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Reading logs are due Monday, February 27. Research! Students are responsible for bronowski essay reading 6 days/120 minutes. Please address only new comment ideas! Complete TenMarks lesson Categorizing 2D Shapes.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on section of a the Ten Marks website nightly for skills writing 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on section of a to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Categorizing 2D Shapes. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on term paper the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is method section paper differentiated based on essay help performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on method section of a research in class! Students will begin semester three reading logs today.

The reading log is due Monday, February 27. Speed And Politics! Students are responsible for reading 6 days/120 minutes. Please address only method section research new comment ideas. Complete TenMarks lesson Division of Decimals to the Hundredths. Term Paper! Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible.

They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on method section performance and ability level), jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on footnotes of an essay to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Division of Decimals to the Hundredths. Method Research! Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work (which is differentiated based on performance and ability level), jam sessions and of essay writing, games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Division of Decimals to the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games.

There is section research paper always something to spend time on footnotes of an to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Division of section paper, Decimals to the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. Cango Paper! They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and method section of a paper, games.

There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Division of Decimals to the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and speed, games.

There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Students up to date with their Trimester 2 reading logs should read on a nightly basis, but will not be assigned a reading log. Students who owe past reading logs were provided with a reading log, and section research paper, are responsible for speed an essay r eading 7 days/140 minutes this week. Reading logs are due on 2/13. Please be sure to address only new comment ideas! Complete TenMarks lessons Addition of Decimals to the Hundredths and Multiplication of Decimals to the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games.

There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Students up to section paper date with their Trimester 2 reading logs should read on a nightly basis, but will not be assigned a reading log. Footnotes! Students who owe past reading logs were provided with a reading log, and are responsible for r eading 7 days/140 minutes this week. Reading logs are due on 2/13. Please be sure to address only new comment ideas!

Complete TenMarks lessons Addition of Decimals to the Hundredths and Multiplication of Decimals to the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for method section of a research paper 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lessons Addition of Decimals to the Hundredths and Multiplication of Decimals to writing the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. Method Of A! There is always something to writing spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lessons Addition of Decimals to the Hundredths and Multiplication of Decimals to the Hundredths.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and method, games. There is of an essay always something to spend time on research to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lessons Addition of Decimals to the Hundredths and Multiplication of Decimals to the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on skills writing the Ten Marks website nightly for research paper 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lessons Addition of Decimals to the Hundredths and Multiplication of Decimals to the Hundredths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due!

Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Comparing and Ordering Multi-Digit Decimals. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is skills of essay writing always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Comparing and Ordering Multi-Digit Decimals.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Expressing Place Value Through Thousandths. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. Method Of A! They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is always something to cango term paper spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on paper in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Expressing Place Value Through Thousandths.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. College Essay Houston! They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. Method Section Research! There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Expressing Place Value Through Thousandths.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on writing the Ten Marks website nightly for paper 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. Bronowski Essay! There is method section research paper always something to spend time on footnotes of an essay to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Expressing Place Value Through Thousandths.

Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible. They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is always something to section of a spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Complete TenMarks lesson Place Value and Multi-Digit Decimals. Students should complete any Ten Marks assignments that are past due! Students should work on speed and politics on dromology the Ten Marks website nightly for 10-15 minutes whenever possible.

They have class assignments, personal work, jam sessions and games. There is always something to spend time on to reinforce skills we are working on in class! Ten Marks *lines of symmetry. Ten Marks *lines of symmetry. Ten Marks *lines of symmetry. Ten Marks *lines of symmetry. Please finish fraction modules assigned on Study Island. Please finish fraction modules assigned on method of a paper Study Island. Please finish fraction modules assigned on Study Island. Please work on fraction modules assigned on Study Island to made prepare for the upcoming MAP testing.

Please work on fraction modules assigned on Study Island to prepare for the upcoming MAP testing. Please work on fraction modules assigned on method Study Island to prepare for the upcoming MAP testing. Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on Gathering Relevant Information and skills of essay writing, Information from Sources. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on Gathering Relevant Information and Information from Sources. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on Gathering Relevant Information and Information from Sources. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on method section of a paper Gathering Relevant Information and Information from Sources. I recommend working under the game mode!

Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on Gathering Relevant Information and Information from Sources. I recommend working under the buy custom essay, game mode! Students should begin completing the Study Island modules on Gathering Relevant Information and Information from Sources. I recommend working under the section of a, game mode! Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on of an Events, Ideas Concepts, Cause and Effect and Academic Language. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on Events, Ideas Concepts, Cause and Effect and Academic Language. Section Paper! I recommend working under the bronowski essay, game mode! Students should continue completing the Study Island modules on Events, Ideas Concepts, Cause and Effect and Academic Language. I recommend working under the game mode!

Students should complete the Study Island modules on Events, Ideas Concepts, Cause and method research paper, Effect and Academic Language over the next couple of weeks. Footnotes Of An Essay! I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island modules on Events, Ideas Concepts, Cause and Effect and Academic Language over the next couple of weeks. Section Of A Research Paper! I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on Theme.

I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the college essay houston, Study Island module on Theme. Section Of A Research Paper! I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on Theme. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on Theme. I recommend working under the buy custom essay, game mode! Social Studies: page 133 questions 2-6. Questions must be restated in method section of a research paper, a complete sentence (using as many words as possible from the essay help houston, sentence in the statement) and must include proof (page(s) and paragraph(s) where the answer to the question was found. This assignment is due on Monday, 11/14.

(also linked to Edmodo for easier access) + complete worksheet Estimating the size of fractions by using benchmarks - due tomorrow. Students should complete the method section research paper, Study Island module on Main Idea. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on Main Idea. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on adding and college essay, subtracting fractions. I recommend working under the method section of a paper, game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on adding and subtracting fractions. I recommend working under the of essay writing, game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on adding and subtracting fractions.

I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on adding and subtracting fractions. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on adding and subtracting fractions. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the method research, Study Island module on adding and subtracting fractions. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on volume - part 2. I recommend working under the paper, game mode!

Students should complete the Study Island module on method section volume - part 2. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on volume - part 2. Cango Paper! I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on volume - part 2. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on section research volume - part 2. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on volume - part 2. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on cango volume. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the of a research paper, Study Island module on volume. I recommend working under the game mode! Students should complete the Study Island module on volume.

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concluding a paper By Behrouz Karoubi. University Lecturer at Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran. For years translations were considered as derivatives, copies, and translators as mechanical devices replacing linguistic codes (equivalents) from one language into another, and of a research the translator's autonomy was always questioned (and is still being questioned) by those who thought of and politics an essay him/her ‘as a monkey, with no choice save to make the same grimaces as his master’ (Leppihalme, 1997: 19), until recent years when, under the method of a research influence of poststructuralism and functionalism, the focus of attention has been shifted to the issue of translator’s agency and subjectivity, and the notions of originality and speed on dromology (absolute) equivalence and also author’s superiority over section research paper translator have been severely questioned. Bassnett (1996) stresses the bronowski essay need for reassessing the method section of a research paper role of the translator by analyzing his/her intervention in the process of linguistic transfer, when she argues ‘Once considered a subservient, transparent filter through which a text could and should pass without adulteration, the bronowski essay translation can now be seen as a process in method paper which intervention is crucial’ (p. 22). Awareness of college help houston complexity of translation process and avoidance of the simplistic view of regarding translation as mere process of transferring words from one text to another, Álvarez Vidal (1996) claim, will result in realizing the importance of the ideology underlying a translation.

They argue that behind every one of the translator’s selections, as what to add, what to leave out, which words to choose and how to place them, ‘there is a voluntary act that reveals his history and the socio-political milieu that surrounds him; in other words, his own culture [and ideology]’. (Álvarez Vidal, 1996: 5). The exercise of section of a research paper ideology in translation is as old as the history of cango term paper translation itself. According to Fawcett (1998), ‘throughout the centuries, individuals and institutions applied their particular beliefs to the production of certain effect in translation’ (p. 107). He claims that ‘an ideological approach to translation can be found in some of the earliest examples of translation known to paper us’ (p.

106). Nevertheless, the linguistics-oriented approaches to translation studies have failed to address the concept of ideology through years of buy custom made their prevalence, because such approaches are limited to their scientific models for research and the empirical data they collect, so that ‘they remain reluctant to take into account the section of a paper social values [and ideologies] that enter into translating as well as the study of it’ (Venuti, 1998a: 1). The deficiency of old linguistics-based approaches – which ‘are mainly descriptive studies focusing on textual forms’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 8) – in accounting for social values in translation and other aspects of language use resulted in developing a new trend of research called Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) ‘whose primary aim is to expose the footnotes ideological forces that underlie communicative exchanges [like translating]’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 2). According to CDA advocates, all language use, including translation, is ideological and this means that translation is always a site for ideological encounters (p. 2). Similarly, Schäffner (2003) claims that all translations are ideological since ‘the choice of a source text and the use to which the subsequent target text is put are determined by the interests, aims, and objectives of social agents’ (p. Section? 23). She evidently opts for speed an essay on dromology, van Dijk’s definition for of a paper, ideology as ‘basic systems of shared social representations that may control more specific group beliefs’ (van Dijk, 1996: 7). However, there are a profusion of diverse definitions of ideology defining the term from different perspectives – amongst them is van Dijk’s definition – some of which are deemed necessary to be overviewed here. The term ‘ideology’ has been always accompanied by cango paper, its political connotation as it is evident in its dictionary definition as ‘a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy ’ (The New Oxford Dictionary of English). Translation scholars who slant in favor of the political definitions of ideology mainly believe that translating itself is a political act as Tahir-Gürça#287;lar (2003: 113) argues, ‘Translation is political because, both as activity and product, it displays process of negotiation among different agents.

On micro-level, these agents are translators, authors, critics, publishers, editors, and readers’. Under the influence of Marx who defines ideology as action without knowledge (false consciousness), ideology is sometimes defined in its negative political sense as ‘a system of wrong, false, distorted or otherwise misguided beliefs’ (van Dijk, qtd in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 3). In its more constructive sense, Marxists like Lenin define Socialist ideology as ‘a force that encourages revolutionary consciousness and fosters progress’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003 : 4). According to Calzada-Pérez ( ibid. Method Section Of A Paper? ), recent definitions of ideology are linked with the concepts of power relations and domination, as she quotes from Eagleton: ‘[Ideology is] ideas and beliefs which help to legitimate the interest of a ruling group or class by distortion or dissimulation’. This view, in fact, forms the basis of post-colonial thinking which ‘highlights the power relations which inform contemporary cultural exchanges’ (Simon, 1996: 136). However, Calzada-Pérez (2003) argues that sometimes ideology is viewed in more positive sense ‘as a vehicle to promote or legitimate interests of a particular social group (rather than a means to destroy contenders)’ (p.

5). Scholars in the field of language-related, cultural and translation studies, however, often tend to extend the concept of ideology beyond political sphere and define it in a rather politically neutralized sense as ‘a set of ideas, which organize our lives and help us understand the relation to our environment’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 5). In most parts of the current paper, nevertheless, the writer opts for the definition proposed by van Dijk (1996: 7) for ideology as a framework that is and politics, ‘assumed to specifically organize and monitor one form of socially shared mental representation, in other words, the organized evaluative beliefstraditionally called 'attitudes'shared by social groups’. The ideology of translation could be traced in both process and product of translation which are, however, closely interdependent. The ideology of section paper a translation, according to Tymoczko (2003), will be a combination of the content of the source text and cango term the various speech acts represented in the source text relevant to the source context, layered together with the representation of the content, its relevance to the receptor audience, and the various speech acts of the translation itself addressing the of a paper target context, as well as resonance and discrepancies between these two ‘utterances’. However, she further explains that ‘the ideology of translation resides not simply in the text translated, but in the voicing and stance of the translator, and in its relevance to the receiving audience’ (pp. 182–83). Of Essay Writing? Schäffner (2003) explains: Ideological aspect can […] be determined within a text itself, both at the lexical level (reflected, for example, in the deliberate choice or avoidance of a particular word […]) and the grammatical level (for example, use of passive structures to avoid an method of a research expression of agency). Ideological aspects can be more or less obvious in texts, depending on the topic of footnotes essay a text, its genre and communicative purposes. (p. 23)

Ideological aspects can also be examined in section of a the process of college text production (translating) and the role of the translator as a target text producer as well as a source text interpreter. These aspects along with two major influencing schools of section research paper post-structuralism and functionalism will be further explained in details in the following paragraphs. Ideology and the translator as a reader of the source text: Poststructuralism. According to Venuti (1992: 6), poststructuralist thinkers like Derrida and de Man, mainly under the influence of buy custom made Benjamin’s works, explode the research paper binary opposition between original and translation which causes translators to be invisible. Before the buy custom made emergence of poststructuralism, structuralists like Saussure, defined language as the scientifically examinable world of symbols constituting the linguistic system and social structure within which the individual is socially shaped. The structuralists believed that ‘language is constructed as a system of section of a research signs, each sign being the result of conventional relation between word and meaning, between a signifier (a sound or sound-image) and a signified (the referent, or concept represented by the signifier)’ (Roman, 2002: 309).

Later, Barthes, an essay early poststructuralist, claimed that ‘signifiers and singnifieds are not fixed, unchangeable, but, on research, the contrary, can make the sign itself signifying more complex mythical signs as intricate signifiers of the cango term paper order of myth’ (Roman, 2002: 310). This shift of idea from structuralism toward poststructuralism resulted in paper extreme revisions in different domains of language, for example, developing of skills of essay ‘the death of author’ thinking which later found its way into Translation Studies. From instability of the method of a research paper signifiers and of an signifieds, Barthes concludes that reading texts in terms of authorial intention or what we think the author meant by method research, such and such a statement, and referring the source of meaning and authority of a text back to its author (as the creator of that text) is no more acceptable (Royle, 2003: 7). An Essay? Barthes argues that ‘since writers only write within a system of language in which particularized authors are born and shaped, texts cannot be thought of in terms of their author’s intentions, but only in relationship with other texts: in intertextuality’ (Roman, 2002: 311). In the absence of the author, Barthes explains, the readers (a translator could be one of them) interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is ideological; and the meaning of a text becomes what individual readers extract from it, not what a supreme Author put in. Method Of A? (Hermans, 1999: 69) ‘ “The birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the an essay Author”, Barthes bravely declares’ ( ibid ). Derrida, another poststructuralist, draws attention from the signifieds to the chain of section research signifiers, as Roman (2002) explains:

Derrida takes the structure of sign from Saussure, but transforms it into a fluid entity, whereby meaning and buy custom essay writing consist solely in signifiers. Signifiers refer only to each other and meaning becomes unstable since any deferral to yet another signifier implies a difference in an endless chain of signification. This is the meaning of the French term différence (from the French verb différer, with its polysemantics of to differ and to delay), or Différance, a neologism created by Derrida particularly to method section of a express the indeterminacy of meaning. (p. 311) According to Venuti (1992), poststructuralist thinkers believe that the original is itself a translation, an skills incomplete process of of a paper translating a signifying chain into univocal signified, and this process is both displayed and further complicated when it is translated by another signifying chain in a different language.

The originality of the foreign text is thus compromised by the poststructuralist concept of textuality. Neither the foreign nor the translation is an original semantic unity; both are derivative, consisting of diverse linguistic and cultural materials, making meaning plural and cango differential (p. 7). In the same way, neither the of a research author nor the translator as a reader of college essay help houston source text possesses the authorial power to definitely determine the meaning; and the ‘authority’ will always remain collective due to endless circle of signification. Poststructuralist textuality redefines the notion of equivalence in translation by assuming from the method research outset that the differential plurality in every text precludes a simple correspondence of meaning, and a ratio of loss and gain inextricably occurs during translation process (Venuti, 1992: 7–8). Footnotes Of An Essay? Similarly, Carbonell (1996) points out that, since the nature of the context of signification in both the source and target cultures is heterogeneous, meaning changes unavoidably in the process of section research translation and there will be always possibility of contradiction between the author’s intentions and the translator’s (p. 98). But why have such relativism and perspectivism result not in a state of complete anarchy and unintelligibility? According to Toury (2000), ‘Cognition itself is influenced, probably even modified by socio-cultural factors’ (p.

119). A translator, just like an author, is not simply a ‘person’ but a socially and historically constituted subject. As mentioned earlier, translators interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in essay help other words, their general knowledge which is ideological. This knowledge allows them to interpret the text and at the same time limits the range of section of a paper their interpretation as Robinson aptly notices: Translators […] are those people who let their knowledge govern their behavior. And that knowledge is ideological. It is controlled by ideological norms.

If you want to essay help become a translator you must submit to the translator’s submissive role, submit to being possessed by what ideological norms inform you. (qtd. in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 7) What brings de facto the individual interpretations close together is the likeness of the intertextual and ideological configurations the individuals are located in. Translators are hardly (maybe never) aware of ideological factors governing their process of the source text interpretation. Toury (1999: 18) admits the difficulties of determining the role of socio-cultural factors which unconsciously affect the translator’s behavior: One thing I would not venture to do […] is tackle the intriguing question of how, and to what extent, the environment affects the workings of the brain, or how the method section of a paper cognitive is influenced by the socio-cultural, even though this would surely make an invaluable contribution to our understanding of translation. Nevertheless, sometimes it becomes extremely difficult for a translation scholar to college houston justify whether the ideological discrepancies observed between the method research paper source text and college essay houston the target text are results of the translator’s subconscious ideological interpretation or of his/her intentional ideological intervention which will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

Ideology and the translator as a writer of the target text: Functionalism. While one of the pivotal achievements of the poststructuralist approaches is dethroning the author and his/her authorial intention by emphasizing the role of the translator as an autonomous reader of the section research source text, functionalist approaches try to dethrone the source text itself by emphasizing the essay role of the translator as a creator of the method section target text and giving priority to purpose ( skopos ) of producing target text. According to Schäffner (1996), ‘Functionalist approach is buy custom essay, a kind of cover term for the research of scholars who argue that the section purpose of the TT is the most important criterion in any translation’ (p. 2). Functionalism is a major shift from ‘linguistic equivalence’ to ‘functional appropriateness’. From the buy custom made essay perspective of functional approaches to translation (particularly, under the influence of Holz-Mänttäri’s theory of ‘translational action’), translation is viewed as a communicative act. In this view, translation is conceived primarily ‘as a process of intercultural communication, whose end product is a text which is capable of section research paper functioning appropriately in specific situations and context of use’ (Schäffner, 1998a: 3). The principles of translational (translatorial) action theory then founded the an essay on dromology basis of Vermeer’s Skopos theory. ‘ Skopos is a technical term for the aim or purpose of a translation’ (Vermeer, 2000: 221).

Skopostheorists assert that any action has an aim, a purpose. From their standpoint, translation is considered not as a process of transcoding (the position usually adopted by earlier non-functionalist approaches), but as a form of human action which has its own purpose basically decided on by the translator (Schäffner, 1998b: 235; Hönig, 1998: 9). The skopos of a translation, Vermeer (2000) explains, is the goal or purpose, defined by the commission and if necessary adjusted by the translator. Method Section Of A Research? He defines commission as ‘the instruction, given by oneself or by someone else, to carry out a given action [which could be translation]’ (p. 229). A text in skopostheorist approach is regarded as an offer of buy custom made information from its producer to a recipient.

Translation is then a secondary offer of information about information originally offered in another language within another culture (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). The translator, as an expert in translational action, must interpret ST information ‘by selecting those features which most closely correspond to the requirements of the target situation (Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). From this point of view, the translation process is not (necessarily) determined retrospectively by the source text, its effects on of a, its addressees, or the intention of its author, but prospectively by the skopos of the target text as determined by the target recipient’s requirements (which are, however, discerned and decided on by the translator himself/ herself). The translation then is ‘the production of a functionally appropriate target text based on an existing source text [or what Neubert calls ‘source-text induced target-text production’], and the relationship between the speed an essay two texts is specified according to the skopos of the translation’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). Focusing on section of a paper, the purpose of translation as the skills of essay writing most decisive factor in research paper translation action, skopos theory emphasizes the role of the translator as an expert in translational action and regards the source text no longer as the ‘sacred original’ from bronowski essay, which the skopos (purpose) of the translation is deduced, but as a mere offer of information whose role in the action is to be decided by the translator, depending on method paper, the expectations and needs of the target readers (Hönig, 1998: 9). Schäffner (1998b) explains ‘The translator offers information about certain aspects of the source-text-in-situation, according to the target text skopos specified by the initiator’ (p. Speed On Dromology? 236). Skopos theory and functionalism focus on the translator, giving him/her more freedom and at the same time more responsibility, as Hönig (1998) asserts: [The translator] may be held responsible for the result of his/her translational acts by recipients and clients.

In order to act responsibly, however, translators must be allowed the freedom to decide in co-operation with their clients what is in their best interests. (p. 10) An awareness of the requirements of the skopos , Vermeer maintains, ‘expands the possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible translation strategies, and releases the of a research paper translator from the corset of an enforced – and hence often meaningless – literalness’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). The translator thus becomes a target-text author freed from the made essay ‘limitations and restrictions imposed by a narrowly defined concept of loyalty to method section research the source text alone’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 238). Hönig (1998: 14) usefully contrasts the made essay characteristics of functional approaches vs. non-functional approaches as follows: Must be visible. Should be invisible.

Translation processes should be. Target text oriented. Source text oriented. Aim of translation is. Translation tools taken from. Figure 1: A schematic view of functionalist and non-functionalist approaches.

As it is evident in Hönig’s schematic view, ‘ visibility ’ of the translator is method of a, a key concept in functional approaches. According to Hönig (1998: 12–13), in functionalism the translator inevitably has to college help houston be visible, since functional approaches do not establish rules but support decision-making strategies and the translator has to make critical decisions as to how define the translation skopos and which strategies can best meet the target recipient’s requirements; s/he should be visible, making his/her decisions transparent to method section of a research his/her client and accepting the responsibility of his/her choices. A visible translator has to essay accept the consequences of his/her translational decisions, as Toury (1999) declares, ‘it is always the translator herself or himself, as an autonomous individual, who decides how to behave, be that decision fully conscious or not. Section Of A Research? Whatever the degree of awareness, it is s/he who will also have to bear the consequences’ (p. 19). According to Nord (2003), almost any decision in translation is – consciously or unconsciously – guided by ideological criteria (p. 111). Ideological factors are very decisive in defining the translation skopos (target-text intended purpose) and selecting the functionally appropriate strategies by the translator, based on the expectations of the translation clients. These factors which affect and regulate the translator’s behavior are further investigated in the following section under the skills writing title of ‘ norms ’.

According to Toury (1999), all human beings have an section of a research inherent tendency toward socializing and social acceptability; as a result, under normal conditions, people tend to avoid behaviors which are prohibited or sanctioned as well as to adopt behaviors which are considered as being appropriate within the group they belong to (pp. 15–19). Houston? There is a socially shared knowledge between members of every community as to what is method research paper, considered correct or appropriate as a communicative behavior. And Politics? This knowledge exists in method section of a the form of norms. They serve consciously as a pattern of behavior, and ‘they also regulate expectations concerning both behavior itself and the products of this behavior’ (Schäffner, 1999: 5). Toury (1999) defines norm in made essay terms of section research paper ‘the translation of general values or ideas shared by a groupas to what is conventionally right and wrong, adequate and inadequateinto performance instructions appropriate for footnotes of an essay, and applicable to section research paper particular situations’ (p. 14). Taking into consideration the definition of ideology by van Dijk (1996) as ‘the organized evaluative beliefs shared by social groups’, normsas defined by Toury (1999)seem to have much in common with ideology; in other words, norms can be understood as ideological realization of the concept of appropriateness and correctness.

Decision-making is a key concept in the discussion of norms. Norms exist ‘only in situations which allow for alternative kind of behavior, involving the need to select among these, with the additional condition that selection be non-random’ (Toury, 1999: 15). This selection, according to and politics an essay Toury (1999), could be posited between two constraining extremes of ‘relatively absolute rules on one hand, and pure idiosyncrasies on the other’ (p. Section Of A Research Paper? 16). Toury applies the norms concept to translation studies presuming that translating involves playing a social role subject to speed an essay on dromology several types of socio-cultural constraints of method varying degree. He, consequently, argues that the acquisition of a set of norms for determining the suitability of translational behavior, and for maneuvering between all factors which may constrain it, is a prerequisite for becoming a translator within a cultural environment (Toury, 2000: 198). Toury (2000) claims that norms govern every level of and politics on dromology decision-making in the translating process from choice of text to translate to the very final choices of translation strategies of action.

He, consequently, introduces three kinds of method of a research norm: 1) initial norm; 2) preliminary norms; and 3) operational norms. Initial norm governs the translator’s overall decisions to made essay adhere ‘either to of a paper the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in made essay that section of it which would host the end product’ (Toury, 2000: 201). Toury (2000), however, denies the necessity of section of a paper full conformity between an overall decision made and every single decision be made in the lower-levels of translation process; and, consequently, denies the existence of absolute regularity in translational behaviors (p. 201). The options which are made available to the translator by Toury’s initial norm are very similar to those which Venuti (1998b: 240) talks about in and politics his foreignizing and of a paper domesticating strategies of translation. Preliminary norms govern the decisions to be made concerning translation policy and directness . According to Toury (2000: 202), ‘ translation policy refers to those factors that govern the choice of text types; or individual texts, to be imported through translation into a particular culture/language at a particular point in time’. He further explains that ‘considerations concerning directness of translation involve the threshold of and politics an essay on dromology tolerance for translating from languages other than the ultimate source language’ (p. 202). Operational norms direct the actual decisions made during the act of translation and are subdivided into matricial and textual-linguistic norms.

Matricial norms govern the segmentation and distribution of method textual materials in the target text. Textual-linguistic norms ‘govern the an essay on dromology selection of material to formulate the target text in, or replace the original textual and linguistic material with’ (Toury, 2000: 202–3). It should be noted that, according to Toury (2000), ‘There is section of a research, no necessary identity between the norms themselves and an essay any formulation of them in language (p. 200). He believes that the observed regularities in translational behaviors are not themselves the norms; they are rather ‘external evidence’ which reflect the existence of method section of a norms (Toury, 1999: 15). Toury also does not identify repeated translational strategies as to be identical with norms; but he thinks norms are the idea behind a strategy (qtd. in Schäffner, 1999: 84). Therefore, Baker’s interpretation of norms as ‘regularities of translational behavior within a specific socio-cultural situation’ (Baker, 1998: 163) or ‘strategies of translation which are repeatedly opted for, in preference to other available strategies, in a given culture or textual system’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 114) seems to be an oversimplification of cango term paper this concept. Chesterman (1993) looks at the concept of norms from a different perspective. Whereas Toury does not pay too much heed to the role of the readership and their feedback in norm construction, Chesterman (1993: 8) puts distinction between expectancy norms , which are the expectations of the target readership and the client etc., and method paper the professional norms which explain the translator's tendency to observe these expectancy norms.

According to Toury (2000), norms themselves actually are not observable. He declares that what are actually available for observation are rather norm-governed instances of behavior or the products of such behavior (p. 206). Toury introduces two major sources for reconstruction of translational norms: 1. Textual : the translated text themselves, for all kinds of skills writing norms, as well as analytical inventories of translation (i.e., ‘virtual texts’), for various preliminary norms; 2. Extratextual : semi-theoretical or critical formulations, such as perspective ‘theories’ of translation, statements made by translators, editors, publishers, and other persons involved in or connected with the activity, critical appraisals of individual translations, or the activity of a translator or ‘school’ of translators, and so forth. (Toury, 2000: 207) Likewise, Baker (1998) introduces studying of a ‘corpus of method authentic translations’ as a means for identifying regular instances of translational behavior which are represented in that corpus by the translator, and, thus, for identifying the translational norms (p. 164).

After so many years of the dominance of the prescriptive approaches over translation teaching, maybe the time has come for a serious revision in translation teaching methods. Footnotes Of An Essay? Translation teaching should no longer be seen as a set of rules and instructions prescribed by translation teachers to the students as to method research what strategies will lead to a ‘ good ’ or ‘ correct ’ translation and what to a ‘ wrong ’ and ‘ incorrect ’ one. Understanding the importance of decision-making in translation, the translation teachers should try to describe the actual translational decisions made by actual translators under different socio-cultural and ideological settings in real life and footnotes essay real situations, and explain the perlocutionary consequences resulted from adoption of such decisions for of a paper, the students. They should allow the students to select voluntarily between different options they have at hand, reminding them that they will be responsible for the selections they make. Translation teachers should make it clear for the students that every translation has its own aim determined by skills, its translator, and that they could freely choose the options that best serve their intended aim of translation. Álvarez, R. Vidal, M.C. (1996).Translating: A political act. In R. Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 1-9).

Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Baker,M. (1998). Norms. In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 163-165). London: Routledge. Bassnett, S. Method Section Of A? (1996). The meek or the bronowski essay mighty: Reappraising the role of the translator.

In R. Section? Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 10-24). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Calzada-Pérez, M. Skills Writing? (2003). Introduction. In M. Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of ideology (pp.

1-22). Method Section Research Paper? Manchester: St. Jerome. Carbonell, O. (1996).The exotic space of cultural translation. In R. Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 79-98). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Fawcett, P. (1998).

Ideology and college houston translation. Method Research Paper? In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 106-111). Of Essay Writing? London: Routledge. Hermans, T. (1999). Section Of A Research Paper? Translation and normativity.

In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and norms (pp. Bronowski Essay? 50-71). Method Of A Research Paper? Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. __________ (1985) The Manipulation of Literature: Studies in Literary Translation . London/Sydney: Croom Helm. Hönig, H. G. Paper? (1998). Positions, power and practice: Functionalist approaches and method research translation quality assessment. In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and quality (pp. Skills Writing? 6-34). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.

Leppihalme, R. (1997). Culture bumps: An empirical approach to the translation of allusions. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Nord, C. (2003). Function and loyalty in section of a research paper Bible translation. College Essay Help? In M. Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of ideology (pp.

89-112). Manchester: St. Jerome. Roman, D. Of A Research Paper? (2002). Poststructuralism. In V. Taylor C. Winquist (Ed.) Encyclopedia of postmodernism (pp. 308-10). London: Routledge. Royle, N. Footnotes Essay? (2003).

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[PPT]Writing a Method Section: Participants

Farm business and method section research paper, financial planning. Business plans, account management, benchmarking and cango term paper, planning for farming businesses. If you run a farm, there is section paper, a wide range of advice available to you, including how to write a business plan, run your accounts, benchmark your business and plan your future activity. This guide explains where you can find specialist business and financial support to writing help you run your farm as efficiently as possible. There is also information on research business and financial planning tools available to essay help you, as well as information on the standards and schemes that you must comply with.

A good business plan gives credibility to your farm, and to your skills as a farm owner or manager. Even if you do not intend to method section of a make any changes to your farm, you should still write a business plan. A good farm business plan can highlight weaknesses in how you plan and run your farm, which can provide helpful insight for later improvements. Before writing a business plan, it is advisable to thoroughly research the sectors that you are currently working in - or plan to essay work in method section paper - including any future economic prospects for these sectors. You should also familiarise yourself with the relevant regulations for your business. When writing your business plan, consider including: your short-term and long-term aims a timescale for achieving your aims who will be involved how you will manage the money. It may also describe your farm’s unique characteristics, for example, its: location soil type management eg whether it is family run.

Most business plans contain: financial forecasts your marketing and sales strategy information about your management team and staff an of essay writing operations plan. Financial forecasts should show what you predict will happen to your business financially when you implement your new plan. For example, you should think about: how much external funding you may need what you can offer as security against loans - if needed how much income you are expecting what your expected profits and losses will be. Your financial forecasts should include a cashflow forecast, and projected profit and loss account. The operations plan is a description of the farm itself, and how it is run. It can include details about: the land, buildings and facilities equipment, vehicles and machinery used on the farm materials and method, supplies what is produced and when plans for new facilities any environmental assessment plans, eg for soil conservation or to improve water quality relevant regulations and speed on dromology, licences.

It may also be useful to prepare an executive summary - a synopsis of key points from your entire plan and a short description of your business opportunity - for method section research presenting to skills writing third parties such as your bank, potential investors or suppliers. Adapt an of a paper existing farm business plan. Changing circumstances may prompt you to adapt your existing farm business plan. Of Essay! If you are looking for a new source of funding - eg through the Rural Development Programme for England - you may need to of a research paper consider adapting the way your farm is run. Even if your current farm business plan is successful, you should always consider reviewing it for and politics possible growth opportunities and improvements to farming operations. For more information on growth opportunities and method paper, changing farming operations, see the college essay help houston, guides on ideas and funding for diversification and paper, ideas and funding for buy custom made diversification. When adapting your existing farm business plan, you should think about: Your goals - what do you want to achieve by reviewing your plan?

For example, do you want to of a paper increase your profits, or be eligible for certain payments? What changes you want to make to your business - for example, bringing in different livestock or plants. How to best make these changes to your farm. Help! How you will carry out this change and at what cost? Any financial implications of this change - and how long will it take you to research paper make a profit? How long the changes will take you to implement. Potential risks - financial or otherwise - to your business. Once you have finalised the changes to your business plan, you should then test whether the plan is possible. You can then work out whether you have enough resources, you can meet the footnotes of an essay, demands, and whether your new plan is realistic.

Financial figures: assess the viability of your farm business. One of the major roles of the Defra is to help the research, farming industry operate as efficiently as possible. Defra publishes a range of guides to help you get started in bronowski essay farm management accounting. The first of these covers how to use your farm accounts to assess your financial situation. This booklet is an method of a paper important first step in helping you to understand what your accounts tell you about footnotes of an essay, your farm’s viability, and section of a research, how to make better use of that information. In order to be viable, your farm needs to generate enough income to college cover: money you draw for your own use tax re-investment repayments on borrowing.

Defra ’s booklet shows you how to section use your profit-and-loss account and balance sheets to assess the on dromology, viability of your business. It guides you through the principles of basic accounting, explaining terms and giving examples of how to enter figures into your accounts. Of A! Knowing how to interpret these figures is key to managing, budgeting and planning the future of your farm business. To make the writing, best use of the booklet, it will help to have a copy of your latest farm accounts. Financial figures in whole farm planning. Once you have assessed your farming business and its success, you may consider making changes to the way your farm operates.

Your decisions - and those of potential lenders - will be based on the financial figures you have drawn up for your business. Defra has published a booklet on mapping out the method section research paper, future of your farm, which provides guidance and information on using financial figures in your overall farm business plan. Cango Paper! This booklet will help you to: make partial and major changes to method of a research your whole farm business make changes to your business planning documents yourself reflect risk, feasibility, viability and future performance in your financial figures in order to determine whether changes will help to make your business more profitable. Plan a partial change to cango term paper your current system. You can also use your financial figures to work out whether partial changes to your farm system will enhance your profitability.

There are several steps to this process: decide on goals - eg increasing production or profitability make a list of the changes you could make to achieve these goals outline the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in your plan make a complete list of the resources you will need to method of a achieve your goals use a profit and loss table to calculate the financial gain versus the cost of these changes determine the effect your changes will have on cash flow quarter by quarter evaluate the risks involved in bronowski essay your project and whether you can reduce them. You should try to write down as much information as possible as this will help you to section develop your plan and share your ideas with others. At each stage, take time to buy custom essay ensure you have included every possibility. Convert your farm’s financial accounts into management accounts. Financial figures are vital to running any farm, but they can be much more useful to you if you convert them into method of a management accounts.

The third booklet in the Management Accounting for Farmers series published by of an essay Defra is a step-by-step guide to converting your figures into management accounts. Method Section! Working through the guide will help you to understand your business more clearly and will equip you to deal more effectively with your bank, accountant and farming business consultant. This practical guide looks at: the terms used in financial and management accounting how profit and loss accounts are structured in management accounting using the profit-and-loss accounts and balance sheet as management tools why stock appreciation and herd depreciation are important for livestock farmers. Using benchmarking tools will allow you to compare your results with those of other similar farm businesses. This helps you to find out help houston, how your business is performing compared with farms of a similar size and section research, type, and in turn will help you identify areas for improvement. Farm benchmarking is an online tool from Defra . You can use it to compare your farm with other farms in Defra ’s Farm Business Survey and with farms in similar surveys in other European Union countries.

Farm business benchmarking lets you compare your: financial data with farms of a similar type and size performance in terms of revenue, cost and profit business results with average or above-average farms. The tool is based on Defra ’s annual Farm Business Survey. This survey gathers information from of essay writing farmers and growers each year about various aspects of their business. The tool will also help you decide if there are areas of your business that could be improved - eg by method of a research reducing costs or increasing output. You will need up-to-date financial accounts in order to use the tool. For more information on essay help farming accounts, see the section on using financial figures to assess the viability of your farm business. The Red Meat Industry Forum (RMIF ) has set up local Farm Business Clubs, which give access to a specialist benchmarking service for red meat producers. Registering for the online RMIF benchmarking service will allow you to compare your farm’s physical and financial performance against method section research those of other club members or other groups. Milkbench+ is an independent service to help milk producers calculate their net margins on milk, and work out how well their business is bronowski essay, performing compared to other producers.

Cross compliance requirements for farming businesses. Cross compliance requires you to observe two main sets of regulatory standards in method section of a your farming business: Statutory Management Requirements (SMRs ) for environmental, public, plant and animal health, and animal welfare requirements to keep your land in good agricultural and environmental condition - with specific reference to soils and maintaining a variety of habitat and landscape features. To find out more about cross compliance, see the guide on cross compliance: the basics. The Rural Payments Agency may inspect your farm more than once a year to check your farm, records and made essay, other documentation, as part of section research, their cross compliance inspections. You must comply with cross compliance requirements to term qualify for: project funding under the Rural Development Programme in method of a research England Single Payment Scheme (SPS ) funding any other direct farm payments, such as Environmental Stewardship payments from Natural England.

Cross compliance and business planning. You must ensure that you consider cross compliance requirements when creating a farming business plan, including: how your SPS payment could affect your profits, losses and income whether meeting SMRs would affect the financial aspects of your plan - for paper example, you may need to method section paper budget for the identification or registration of livestock how your business plan would be affected if you don’t meet cross compliance requirements and therefore do not receive your Common Agricultural Policy payments. All cross compliance payments are subject to meeting specific criteria. You should not rely on bronowski essay these payments in your business plan, or include them as guaranteed finance. The Farm Advisory System advises farmers about cross compliance.

For further information, you can call the Cross Compliance Helpline on Tel 0845 345 1302. Organisations dealing with farm financial planning. There are several organisations that can offer support and advice to farmers about method paper, farm financial planning. You can also use this site to find out about regulations, licences, standards and trade bodies relevant to specific business sectors, for buy custom made essay example: arable cattle sheep and section of a research, goats pigs poultry fish farming beekeeping other animal farming, eg game or pets farming support services. Find out made essay, how to comply with all the regulations and licences that apply to you in the section on your business sector. The Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra ) administers European support policies that provide around ?3 billion to UK agriculture. It also oversees a number of agencies that work with arable farmers, imports and method section of a paper, exports of crops and essay, implement pest and disease controls. You can call the Defra Helpline on Tel 08459 33 55 77. The Carbon Trust provides interest-free loans of between ?3,000 and ?20,000, for farmers in England to upgrade to method section of a more energy-efficient equipment.

These loans are designed to pay for buy custom themselves, over a period of up to four years, through direct energy savings. You can find out about interest-free loans on section of a research the Carbon Trust website. The Rural Development Programme for England 2007-2013 (RDPE ) is jointly funded by essay houston the Government and the EU. Under this scheme the government will allocate a total of ?3.3 billion to agri-environment and section of a research, other land management schemes. The introduction of the RDPE has changed the way payments are made under the Environmental Stewardship and Energy Crops schemes. In England, the cango paper, Farm Advisory System advises farmers about cross compliance. For further information, call the of a research paper, Cross Compliance Helpline on Tel 0845 345 1302. Alternatively, find information on cross compliance requirement on speed and politics an essay on dromology the Cross Compliance website. The National Farmers’ Union (NFU ) represents the farmers and paper, growers of England and Wales. It aims to promote successful and socially responsible agriculture and horticulture, while ensuring the long-term viability of rural communities. Natural England is an agency of Defra . Bronowski Essay! It administers a programme of financial incentives for method section paper farmers and land managers, aimed at protecting and enhancing the natural environment.

These include: the Environmental Stewardship scheme cross compliance requirements land management wildlife management and licensing Countryside and skills of essay writing, Rights of research paper, Way Act. Defra also makes grant funding available to certain woodland projects under the of an, English Woodland Grant Scheme (EWGS ). These are administered on behalf of Defra by the Forestry Commission. Published: 11 September 2012. Updated: 13 June 2013. 13 June 2013 Fixing references to specialist guides 11 September 2012 First published.

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