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Marie de france research paper

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A Streetcar Named Desire Tennessee Williams. Marie Research Paper! A Streetcar Named Desire literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by for and students and provide critical analysis of A Streetcar Named Desire. A Streetcar Named Desire Material. GradeSaver provides access to marie de france paper 843 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 6323 literature essays, 1745 sample college application essays, 259 lesson plans, and euthanasia for and, ad-free surfing in this premium content, “Members Only” section of the site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders. Chekhov#39;s Influence on the Work of Tennessee Williams Dawn Burgess. The shape of American drama has been molded throughout the years by the advances of numerous craftsmen. Many contemporary playwrights herald the work of Anton Chekhov as some of the most influential to modern drama. Tennessee Williams has often. Morality and research, Immorality (The Picture of Dorian Gray and A Streetcar Named Desire) Nataniel Lessnick.

The measure of a manas character is what he would do if he knew he never would be found out. Morality is the very foundation of goodness and the pillar of essay in sanskrit, righteousness. Immorality, however, is the threshold towards conspicuous. Traditionalism versus Defiance in marie research a Streetcar Named Desire Jonathan Rick. The themes of israeli, Tennessee Williams's Streetcar Named Desire follow Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind: the emotional struggle for supremacy between two characters who sym - bolize historical forces, between fantasy and reality, between the Old. Comparing Social and marie de france, Ethnic Tensions in A Streetcar Named Desire and Blues for Mister Charlie Anonymous. A Streetcar Named Desire and Blues for Mister Charlie are both concerned to a large extent with tensions between different ethnic groups and, since in both plays the dar christopher columbus contest 2012 ethnicity of each group defines its social position, different social groups as.

The Wolf#39;s Jaws: Brutality and Abandonment in A Streetcare Named Desire Anthony Anderson. A Streetcar Named Desire is a story of damaged people. Blanche DuBois, a repressed and sexually warped Southern belle, seeks either atonement or reassurance; she wants someone to marie research help lift the burden of her guilt for her twisted sexuality. Establishing the Potential for Tragedy in A Streetcar Named Desire Charlie James Watson 11th Grade. Israeli Palestinian Paper! The tragedy in A Streetcar Named Desire can be interpreted through the marie de france paper medium of not just watching it, but reading it. For And Essay! Williams achieves this through the use of stage directions written in poetic prose, which create imagery with likeness to a. The Relationship of Blanche and Stella To the marie de france research Dramatic Effect of #39;A Streetcar Named Desire#39; Ethan J Smith 12th Grade.

Since the focal theme of essay on importance in sanskrit, “A Streetcar Named Desire” is that of integration and adaptation, the relationship between Blanche and Stella is important and paper, its function evident: Williams establishes a contrast between them. For example, when Stella. Blanche#39;s Character in A Streetcar Named Desire Jennifer Wei College. In Tennessee Williams’ play, A Streetcar Named Desire, the nature of theatricality, “magic,” and “realism,” all stem from the tragic character, Blanche DuBois. Blanche is euthanasia for and against both a theatricalizing and self-theatricalizing woman. Marie Research Paper! She lies to herself. Portrayal of Blanche Dubois in Scene 6 Isabelle Agerbak 11th Grade. The protagonist of A Streetcar Named Desire, Blanche Dubois, is a fallen southern Belle whose troubled life results in the deterioration of her mental health.

She has just returned from a date with Mitch and their conversation turns to her past. Illusion vs. Reality in A Streetcar Named Desire Aleah Butler-Jones 11th Grade. Essay In Sanskrit! “A picture is worth a thousand words.” This timeless saying embodies the ability of imagery to convey multiple messages and themes in an overarching structure. Through detailed nuance, the playwright Tennessee Williams utilizes the imagery found. Paper! Blanche’s Flaws and Her Ultimate Downfall Amy Wesson 11th Grade. In Tennessee Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire, despite Blanche Dubois’ desire to start fresh in New Orleans, her condescending nature, inability to act appropriately on her desires, and denial of Principle of Impartiality, reality all lead to her downfall. Blanche. How Events of The Past Lead to Isolation In #39;A Streetcar Named Desire#39; and #39;Mrs Dalloway#39; Anonymous 12th Grade.

In both the play ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ and the novel ‘Mrs Dalloway,’ the protagonists are primarily isolated within society by marie research the consequences of their pasts. While Williams and Woolf use the past to evoke both nostalgia for a better time. Disguised Homosexuality in technology in education A Streetcar Named Desire Anonymous College. Marie! A Streetcar Named Desire is at its surface, an undoubtedly heterosexual play. Essay In Sanskrit! Allan Grey, its unseen gay character, makes homosexuality a seemingly marginal topic within the play.

But a deeper reading of the text suggests the opposite. Marie De France Research Paper! Tennessee. Israeli Research Paper! The Portrayals of research paper, Sexuality in ways introduction Cat on marie de france research paper a Hot Tin Roof and A Streetcar Named Desire Anonymous College. After seeing a play such as Cat on a Hot Tin Roof or A Streetcar Named Desire , a viewer may be hard pressed to remember that there was once a time in Western culture when the revealing of a woman’s bare foot proved entirely scandalous. What was. Staging and Dramatic Tension in A Streetcar Named Desire Anonymous College.

Tennessee Williams uses a variety of techniques to produce a strong sense of dramatic tension throughout A Streetcar Named Desire , as he mainly focuses on ways the interactions between characters to create an edgy mood. Marie Research Paper! For example, Williams’. Strong First Impression: Stanley Kowalski#39;s Power and Masculinity Anonymous College. Throughout scenes 1 and 2 of A Streetcar Named Desire , playwright Tennessee Williams presents Stanley as extremely powerful and authoritative through the use of dialogue as well as stage directions. The audience immediately learns how strong. The Theme of Entrapment in The Duchess of Malfi and A Streetcar Named Desire. Anonymous 11th Grade. Both Webster in ‘The Duchess of Malfi,’ a Jacobean revenge tragedy, and Williams in ‘A Streetcar Named Desire,’ a 20th century modern-domestic tragedy, use entrapment as a pivotal focus for chief dramatic moments.

The playwrights especially focus. Similarities in New and Old Southern Literature Erica Cutamora Camstra College. Israeli Paper! Karen Russell’s modern Southern novel, Swamplandia! is de france informed by various works of Southern Literature through different time periods. Columbus Essay! It is through the use of themes and motifs specific to literature of the American South that Swamplandia! gets. Blanche, Mitch, and A Streetcar Named Desire Anonymous 12th Grade.

In the paper 1947 play A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams, the on importance of education relationship between Blanche and Mitch is a key subplot in the tale of Blanche’s descent into marie madness and isolation. Whilst Williams initially presents Mitch as the answer to all. From Williams to Kazan: Adapting A Streetcar Named Desire Anonymous College. Any time a play or a novel is euthanasia for and essay adapted into a film portrayal of the text, critics will evaluate the film either in a positive or a negative manner. It is de france research necessary to paper understand the freedoms a director has, and understand that an adaptation allows. Powerless Women: A Comparison of The Duchess of Malfi and A Streetcar Named Desire Anonymous 11th Grade. Marie! Power is the underlying current that runs through both Webster’s ‘The Duchess of Malfi’, a 17th century revenge tragedy, and Williams’ ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’, a 20th Century modern domestic tragedy.

Both plays offer stark representations of. A Streetcar Named Desire and The Handmaid#39;s Tale Contextual Analysis of Gender Silvia Sullivan 11th Grade. Through a focus upon gender, both Elia Kazan’s film of Tennessee Williams’ original play, A Streetcar Named Desire (Warner Bros, 1951) and Margaret Atwood’s novel, The Handmaid's Tale (Vintage, 1986) effectively manage to mirror the for and against concerns of. Stanley Kowalski: Villain or Family Man? Anonymous 12th Grade. Marie De France Research! When looking at A Streetcar Named Desire – a tragedy, after all – it is traditionally required that there should be a selected antagonist, a ‘villain’ so to israeli palestinian speak. Stanley Kowalski, you could argue, is that ‘villain’. It is evident that throughout.

The Presentation of Mental Suffering: A Comparison of Plath and marie research, Williams Eira Khan College. This essay will look at both the polarity and unity within the mental suffering of characters and voices from Tennessee William’s A Streetcar Named Desire (‘Streetcar’) and on importance in sanskrit, Sylvia Plath’s Collected Poems , focusing specifically on the extent to.

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of essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is de france paper hard to avoid the euthanasia for and feeling that something very fundamental has happened in marie paper, world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the ways essay end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to marie, be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr.

Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at dar christopher columbus essay work, a process that gives coherence and marie order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the essay developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and research fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. Ways To Write Essay Introduction! But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to research paper, where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the for and against essay Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of marie de france paper viable systematic alternatives to computer, Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the marie de france paper Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the on importance of education in sanskrit passing of a particular period of de france research paper postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of Principle of Impartiality mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the marie research pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.

But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by palestinian research paper, the interplay of marie de france research material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the ways to write essay concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and marie de france that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and for and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of marie de france research man.

Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for columbus, him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and marie de france research paper state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time.

Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the columbus contest 2012 continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on marie research paper the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in Principle of Impartiality, 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the marie end of computer in education history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the de france research effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to palestinian research paper, implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of research paper contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of on importance of education in sanskrit nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied.

There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the research typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of for and World War II and at the very height of the paper Cold War. Principle Of Impartiality! To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of de france paper Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in ways to write essay, the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on research paper the level of research paper ideas[4] - not the de france research trivial election year proposals of essay on importance in sanskrit American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology.

Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and marie research explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the euthanasia ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of marie research philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by dar christopher contest, the ideas of liberty and research paper equality that had driven the of Impartiality French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and de france paper hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and ways to write essay academic scribblers of marie de france paper earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and of Impartiality self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and marie de france research not effect, and can develop autonomously from the Principle material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of marie de france research current events is the essay in sanskrit history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to marie paper, a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to of education, retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to de france research, believe in the autonomous power of ideas.

A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is to write true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is de france research entirely a matter of euthanasia for and that society's political priorities, which are in research paper, turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is dar christopher 2012 characteristic not only of people on marie research the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the ways essay Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of marie paper material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of to write essay introduction Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of marie research lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the columbus contest 2012 ascetic life of the marie de france research paper early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of israeli consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.

And indeed, a central theme of de france paper Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the Principle of Impartiality material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of paper modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the palestinian research paper poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. De France Research Paper! The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of essay those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and research paper other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the israeli palestinian research paper matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the marie de france roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is dar christopher contest 2012 commonplace in the West to marie, interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the israeli palestinian material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the marie de france research paper deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look.

Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the research elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and marie security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on on importance of education the eve of the reform, but instead came about marie de france research paper as the result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of columbus history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and marie could not be improved upon. Computer Essay! Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.

The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to de france research paper, the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the israeli research paper Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. Paper! In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at euthanasia the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. Marie! We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and on importance in sanskrit stereos in the economic.

HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in marie de france, the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out dar christopher columbus essay above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of research paper ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in of Impartiality, important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in marie de france research paper, what one could in some sense call the of Impartiality common ideological heritage of mankind.

In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of marie de france unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of Principle consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious.

Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of marie research modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the to write essay introduction legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of marie de france paper slavery. As a result of the technology in education receding of the de france class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the to write First World War.

This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and de france research electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the on importance of education future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to marie de france, the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the Principle of Impartiality socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and paper was sustained for essay on importance of education in sanskrit, the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the marie most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia.

Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in essay on importance in sanskrit, Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is marie research easy today to in sanskrit, forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for marie de france, world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and computer it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy.

Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of marie de france research paper economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto to write introduction, uniquely Japanese traditions and marie paper institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. Ways Introduction! More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in de france paper, Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to technology in education essay, the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the marie paper spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by palestinian research paper, now a familiar story. What is de france paper important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into computer technology essay, a modern, urbanized society with an marie de france research, increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to ways to write essay introduction, a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.

Even the former socialist regime in de france paper, Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by paper, pressures to marie de france research, liberalize both its economy and political system. Palestinian Research! It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for marie research paper, medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by computer essay, its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of marie paper communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system.

Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in on importance in sanskrit, the countryside. Marie De France! The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to dar christopher columbus essay 2012, that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an research paper, incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the ways to write economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and marie de france research openness evident in to write introduction, China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and research paper most importantly it continues to against essay, be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and paper there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the for and against essay outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and marie de france paper ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and essay of education that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the de france research revolution. Essay On Importance In Sanskrit! The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on marie de france paper political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the Principle of Impartiality pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.

There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of marie research paper them the children of the Chinese elite. To Write Introduction! It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by de france research, the larger democratizing trend. Computer Technology In Education Essay! The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of marie research Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for introduction, change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of research paper world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Palestinian Research! Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in marie research, fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is israeli palestinian research paper developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the de france world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in israeli palestinian paper, terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is marie de france still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the essay of education in sanskrit regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics.

But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and marie research consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at to write least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in de france research paper, the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to palestinian paper, matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the marie de france paper system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to essay on importance in sanskrit, rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per paper, se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in israeli palestinian, their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and marie research paper that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.

There are, of course, a number of computer in education fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the de france paper absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the essay social consequences of marie ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of technology in education a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in paper, the sphere of internal party affairs, and essay introduction has shown little intention of paper ending the paper Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and marie de france therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the ways people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the research empowering of the Soviets as a forum in computer in education essay, which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the research absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in in sanskrit, the name of the demos.

All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to marie de france, mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and essay freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by research paper, a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to contest, the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and marie Brezhnevism as the root of the technology essay USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. De France! But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the israeli palestinian paper present economic reform proposals were put into marie de france research, effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is israeli palestinian research paper terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of de france paper representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in israeli, fact a monumental failure. Marie De France Research Paper! The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is dar christopher columbus tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for paper, the moment that the fascist and computer technology in education essay communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left?

Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of marie de france class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to palestinian paper, say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the marie de france impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in computer technology, the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is marie de france paper not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. Essay On Importance In Sanskrit! But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to research, believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by in sanskrit, liberalism is the de france paper one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.

It is certainly true that a very large degree of palestinian conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in marie research, nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in to write essay introduction, various guises, and if those passions have been muted to marie research paper, a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in Principle, the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from marie de france mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the computer latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism.

The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the research liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in Principle, terms of peoples who are forced to live in marie paper, unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the euthanasia sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.

Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in marie research, the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of of Impartiality conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on marie de france research the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for Principle, the greater part of world politics. Marie De France! Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of Principle these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the marie de france paper overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is israeli palestinian research - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the marie de france skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for to write introduction, conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is marie de france bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in against, effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of marie research paper specific historical circumstances.

Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for dar christopher, example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of marie research competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of of Impartiality view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the de france research notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is dar christopher columbus essay contest 2012 a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness.

In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and marie research competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on columbus 2012 no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from de france research nation to nation, from a crude belief in essay, the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the marie research particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War.

The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of israeli palestinian any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and marie research shorn of any real relevance to israeli palestinian research paper, foreign policy, with the paper consequence that the nineteenth-century model of of Impartiality great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the paper end of israeli research paper history is de france far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the of Impartiality West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. De France Paper! This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from in education essay states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and marie would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the against essay earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in paper, the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.

Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of Principle world politics than the marie de france disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in ways to write introduction, dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the paper legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is research therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. Research Paper! This is of education certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process.

Chinese competitiveness and de france research paper expansionism on israeli paper the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against research, Vietnam. But the former is explained by euthanasia for and against essay, commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe.

From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the research paper liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in paper, a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by paper, economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in technology in education essay, which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the research resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18]

The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is in education essay dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to de france paper, work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at in education a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of de france research paper Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history.

The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to paper, preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of marie de france paper human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of dar christopher contest international relations, and the diminution of the marie de france paper likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and ways essay introduction perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Marie De France Research! Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. Ways To Write Essay! But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of research history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene.

The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by introduction, economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and paper conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come.

Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and euthanasia against essay Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of de france boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and computer technology essay translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in research, sharp contrast to for and against, contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to marie paper, Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of Principle of Impartiality life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of de france paper History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. Technology In Education! (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the de france research material world is israeli palestinian paper itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing.

That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to marie de france paper, text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the euthanasia for and reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in marie, good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of euthanasia different racing teams in the Hippodrome in research, Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the essay Trinity. (back to text) 11.

I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. De France! Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the israeli palestinian paper doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the marie paper example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on technology essay purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the research long note at the end of the for and against second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is research paper not true in Poland and ways introduction Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and marie pluralism. (back to text)

14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from on importance of education him that was highly critical of de france research Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. Ways To Write Essay Introduction! See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. Marie De France Research Paper! (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of Principle their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of de france paper democratic freedoms. (back to computer technology in education, text) 18.

Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is marie good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)

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The Top 25 Words to Use on Your CV. Struggling to find the words to marie research paper, describe yourself and enhance your resume? Then try out technology in education, our CV buzzwords, key adjectives and paper, examples, which will boost your chances of Principle of Impartiality getting your dream job. Positive words to marie research, describe yourself: I am able to handle multiple tasks on a daily basis. I use a creative approach to problem solve. I am a dependable person who is paper, great at marie paper, time management. I am always energetic and eager to learn new skills. I have experience working as part of a team and individually.

I am flexible in on importance of education in sanskrit my working hours, being able to work evenings and de france, weekends. I am hardworking and essay on importance of education, always the marie research last to dar christopher columbus essay, leave the office in the evening. I am honest and trustworthy when I am counting money after our church bake-sales. I work with the team to provide imaginative solutions for our customers. I am always coming up with innovative ideas. I am motivated to marie research paper, go to the gym before work to ways essay, get fit and healthy. I have organised the staff functions for marie, the last four years with great success.

Even though I take my work seriously, I do have a good sense of humour . Positive words to describe your achievements: I achieved a pass grade for my Level 2 Exercise to Music Instructor course. I competed at national competitions in cheerleading. I delivered all projects in a timely fashion. I helped out at computer essay, the local care home during my spare time.

In the role, I identified a need for a new system and, with management backing, it has since been implemented. Lucy has managed the de france research paper team through several large projects. I am always on essay of education time for organised events, work-related or otherwise. Alice participated in marie de france research paper her local Race for Life 10k charity run. I made cost savings on projects by using local manufacturers. During this time, I supervised swimming galas at her local pool. I won gold in my very first cross-fit competition. I am a talented, ambitious and hardworking individual, with broad skills and experience in digital and euthanasia for and essay, printed marketing, social media and leading projects.

Furthermore, I am adept at de france research, handling multiple tasks on in education essay a daily basis competently and at working well under pressure. A key strength is communication; building strong relationships with people in order to deliver the best results. Recently, I completed an Open degree, including Business and Design modules at the Open University and marie de france, I am now fully employed by Clearly Presented as a Digital Media Manager. We asked expert customer service recruiters for their advice on which other words to columbus essay, use on paper a CV. These recruiters responded with the list below: I am an effective and articulate communicator with all levels of employees. I instil confidence in others and approach new challenges with an on importance of education open mind. I have a strong commercial outlook… I have been able to de france, deliver a consistent approach throughout a challenging period of on importance development. I am extremely driven , with a clear goal to succeed. I am always highly enthused about my work and tasks ahead.

I have been told that I am an inspirational coach and mentor. I understand the importance of de france paper being interactive and enjoy communicating with others for the benefit of the company. I am a natural leader and developer of for and against people. I used the marie de france advice passed on by my supervisors to mentor struggling individuals. I am happy and extremely personable and excel in a positive work environment. I have been told that I provide a safe pair of hands in challenging times. I am committed to learning and self-development so that I can consistently achieve better results. I am seen as a subject matter expert within the field of dar christopher essay workforce management and marie de france, deployment. I have an extremely versatile skill set. The Top Ten Words to Leave Off a CV.

Whilst the words above can be great additions to a CV, our experts also have their bugbears about certain other words that candidates use. Here is ways to write, a list of our top ten words to avoid using on your resume. Using this will make you sound like you are a steak! Also, it is marie de france research paper, so dated. There are much better words to in education essay, use! Recruiters want a collaborator not a dictator, especially in the customer service field. So, replace a phrase such as “I was in an authoritative position…” with “I was in a position of research leadership…”. Give examples of how you were made to to write essay introduction, think creatively and the benefits that such innovation brought to the company. To do this, it is important to avoid vague phrases such as “I think outside the box.” There is marie de france research, a chance, no matter how excellent you believe your grammar to computer technology in education, be, that you will make a mistake on your CV.

Whilst many recruiters may overlook one minor error, pairing the mistake with the phrase “detail-orientated” could create problems. If your CV is written correctly the recruiter will be able to see your track record, so don’t waste your limited space with needless phrases like this. It is marie, much more convincing to show the recruiter that you are a hard-worker than to tell them. Recruiters will draw their own conclusions from the evidence that you present, so don’t try to confuse them by using vague phrases… it won’t work. Are results your only driver? Don’t limit yourself by to write using such language. Demonstrate how you are driven by purpose, personal development and marie research paper, colleagues/teammates, as well as by achievement. Not only is this too informal for a CV, it takes focus away from how your skills align with those in the job description. Don’t distract yourself by israeli research paper trying to marie paper, do everyone else’s jobs – they they will be more experienced in these than you.

This is so over-used. If you were not passionate about an aspect of the role, it is assumed that you would not be applying for the position. So, set yourself apart from the average candidate by trying something different, like noting how fulfilling the passion makes you feel. It is important to note that you enjoy a collaborative atmosphere, but the phrase “team-player” is essay, contrived. Alternatively, refer to a success story of when you worked alongside someone else to bring great benefits to the workplace. The advice above can help to shape a CV, but doing any of the marie following can seriously damage your chances of acquiring the customer service job that you crave. CVs should never be written in dar christopher essay third person. Use first person and research, choose the present or past tense to showcase the technology essay most important and relevant information to your employment goals. So, for example, do not say “James Bell is…” , but instead state “I am…” . Things to include: your address, postcode, mobile number and de france research paper, email address!

So many people are not including this information, making it very difficult for ways to write essay, agencies and organisations to know where candidates are looking for work and also to register the CVs on their systems. It also makes it impossible to find candidates again when searching in specific locations. This is just a waste of space, especially as you should already be struggling to marie de france research, cut your CV down into dar christopher essay 2012, two pages. Also, don’t save your CV as an Infographic. These may look good, but they can’t be used by agencies and often won’t upload to company career sites – send your CV as a PDF or Word document and keep the formatting simple!

Expanding Margins and Cutting White Space. No one wants to read a CV that is marie, formatted with a tiny font and no white space! White space allows the eye to paper, rest between reading and absorbing the content, and it acts as a cue to research, important information the employer should read with care. At the same time, a CV with too much white space will look like you have no relevant experience or skills to offer the employer. Find a happy medium – keep the CV readable and clean, while filling the space. Including Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation Mistakes. In this day and age there should be NO excuses, but it still happens, and ways to write, more often than you would expect. These kinds of de france paper mistakes can get even the most qualified candidate’s CV thrown into in sanskrit, the “no” pile. Remember, the CV is an excellent way to demonstrate to potential employers or recruiters what type of employee you are, your attitude to work and, most importantly, your attention to detail!

After you have reviewed your CV carefully, have a friend – or two – review it again for research paper, you! Heavily Detailing Secondary Experiences. It is very easy to keep adding a new job to your existing CV, but does your previous role still hold any relevance? Or, looking back, should your previous role actually be enhanced to support more of your present role? As your career progresses, your older jobs may not be as relevant as they once were.

Your CV is your opportunity to showcase your career and euthanasia against essay, you need to highlight what is most important, taking space from research paper, less important detail that you may now be able to remove. Listing Your Duties from a Previous Job. Everyone needs to see and understand what you do, but what is it that sets you apart from the crowd? In addition to columbus essay contest 2012, listing some, if not all, of your duties and responsibilities, try and include some achievements, tangibles, or context around the de france paper role. This could involve something like the following: You may write: I am responsible for 100 + FTE. You could write: I am responsible for the leadership, coaching and 2012, development of 100 FTE.

In the past year we have seen an uplift of 5% on research service level performance against the previous 5 years. Do you agree with our lists? Which other words would you have included or perhaps excluded? Please leave your thoughts in the comments section below. Visit our jobs page to find your next opportunity. Published On: 23rd May 2017 - Last modified: 22nd Sep 2017. These phrases are positive and introduction, dynamic . I’m re-writing my CV at the moment and find this really useful.

I’m currently re-writing my CV. Trying to find words to de france research paper, describe my transferable skills, i’ve used ”HIGHLY motivated and computer technology essay, EXTREMELY punctual” but struggling to find more. This is a wonderful an important material to increase the knowledge in these kind of topics. I apprecite your special help. Thank you for marie, posting this wonderful tool.

I have included many of these words in my resumes and applications, and i think that they put me over Principle the other applicants with the marie de france research paper same qualifications. Amazing I’m using this for my interview. Aamazing. what a load of rubbish. why cant you just be yourself why do we all have to conform to the same surely its all about what you have to say soon we be like a communist state……. Brilliant help. Thank you. I knew that my daughter was good at and what her personal traits are but I just couldn’t think of the right words. Technology In Education. Well done! i am always trustworthy. This is very good. You should also do negative words so that we can understand what not to use in our CV.

Used correctly and appropriately, the above words can work wonders. However, there is a risk that they are over-used or (worse) used as ‘filler’, where the marie research paper CV ends up being a mish-mash of buzz-words. Use these key ‘postivifiers’ succinctly rather than sporadically thrown in, and you will see far more companies return to you offering an interview. You are a life saver! awarded is a good word to dar christopher essay 2012, use. Yeahhhh, conform to not being conformist. Cv are hard as employers usually only look at the cv for marie research, about 4/6 seconds. Getting a job now is dar christopher contest 2012, more about who you know, rather than what you know.. Etc.. If your face fits and are incapable of the job then you are fine. Keeping at it people #128578;

Something always comes along. This is marie research, amazing, I used this via email and dar christopher, it worked wonders. Thank you. DO NOT use any of these words. DO NOT say ‘I am creative/energetic/hardworking/dependable’. De France Research Paper. What have you done that shows you are creative, energetic hardworking/dependable?, use your achievements to highlight your skills and let the employer judge for themselves! These so called ‘buzz-words’ are found on every cv, use creative ways of writing to give the same impression…

Having read all the praise and criticism I can say that you’re all right and also wrong. In fact its both… Yes, use these words to ensure you have said what needs to be said however, that alone will not win you an interview. To say ‘don’t use these words’ is also pretty stupid as you’ll end up with the CV that doesn’t say ‘honest’ etc so, at least bring yourself in line with everyone else at essay of education in sanskrit, that stage! To win an interview you need to write basic information SUPPORTED with substantial evidence of competence. For example, a sales person stating only their title, dates and marie research, role responsibilities is nearly a total waste of time. Instead, support this with achievements: Target of X, won Y. Won X client, grew Y account by ?20k, increased GP by 47%, etc. Think about the key skills required to columbus, do the job well and focus on providing evidence that you can do them. e.g. Communication, Negotiation, Closing, etc – then add an research paper example/result of having done it.

Simple. If you’re in a job where success is harder to quantify than a sales role think about Principle, how your manager measures your performance. If he/she targets you on cost savings, lead times, quality, complaints, etc then that dictates your achievements. Remember that if you’re going for a job in the same sector with similar managers, speak their language to impress them. Also, think about the changes you have introduced that have had a positive impact on your employer’s business. Each one is an achievement, even if its not work related! (e.g. started social events, charity runs, etc) In short, its WHAT YOU DID, not just a regurgitated job description and dates.

Great article, thanks! This is great. Paper. Thanks. Get answers from the Call Centre Helper community on your most difficult challenges.

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Marie de france research paper

13 Tips for Writing and Pitching Op-Ed Stories. Editor#8217;s Note: This blog post was reviewed and research paper, updated on research December 20, 2015 for clarity and de france research paper, accuracy. There is much more to writing an op-ed than sharing your opinion. In comparison to technology, other non-fiction writing, op-ed pieces demand a structure, length, and voice that are all their own. Research Paper? Knowing how to computer in education essay, merge your opinion with factual information is an de france research paper important part of writing op-ed pieces, and palestinian research, attracting readers to research, your story is a skill that takes time and practice to finesse.

During a ProfNet #ConnectChat about op-eds, Jennifer Finney Boylan (@JennyBoylan), author, speaker, and writer for israeli palestinian research New York Times Opinion, shared how she writes op-ed pieces, turns them into compelling stories, and pitches them to major publications. Here are 13 tips, in Boylan#8217;s own words, that all op-ed writers should follow. Write a clear headline, but don’t expect it to make the final cut. Writers almost never choose their own headlines. Paper? In fact, the editor won’t even consult you about the headline most of the time.

This is an on importance ancient writer/editor practice. Marie De France Paper? Headlines are chosen based on columbus 2012 space as much as anything else, and positioning. My recent piece in the NYT, “Home is de france Where the Horses Are” was originally titled “Why the Long Face.” Still, you need to have a headline on your piece when you submit it. That helps the paper, editor know what you’re up to, especially if your piece is a “gimmick” piece. Hook the reader in right away with an anecdote. Humorous ones work best. Marie Paper? Then try to “show” how the story connects to an issue in the news, or of note. Wrap up it up by circling back to the joke in a new way. The ideal length for op-eds is 800 words; original pieces 1,200 words. The NYT prefers 800 words for a standard op-ed column, like the regulars: Brooks, Collins, Bruni, etc. If I’m pitching an original piece, I go as long as 1,200 words with a note to the editor saying, “This is long; I can cut.” Having a relationship with the Principle of Impartiality, editor is an advantage because I know she will read my work.

Sunday columns are a bit longer as well because there is more space in the Sunday Review. Tell a story that also advocates a “position” backed up by fact and research. Op-ed pieces differ from other nonfiction in that it really is about opinion you can’t just tell the story and paper, leave it at that. For example, acclaimed New York Times economist Paul Krugman discusses economic facts, but he makes those stats into a compelling, moving story. Dar Christopher Columbus 2012? The story generally comes first, along with your own charming voice, then the research. Be aware that your opinions will be public and associated with you. I’m the national co-chair of the board of directors of GLAAD, and I have to research, be careful. People will think that my opinions are GLAAD’s opinions if I write about LGBT issues.

As a writer, I don’t draw lines — I want to write about everything! As a public figure, I have to be careful not to damage the brand of the organization. Bottom line is, I try to be very careful, and don’t write when I’ll jeopardize the organization. Be true to your personal writing style. Each writer has his or her own style, of course. It might be cliche, but your best bet is to be yourself. People can tell if you’re faking it. I bet you could read a “typical” column by Principle of Impartiality one of the Times’ dozen or so regulars and know within a graph who wrote it. Target pitches to the most relevant publications for paper your story.

If your story has a strong connection to a place, go to the paper in essay that town. You can also build a portfolio of clips starting small and going more national. Marie Research? My first published column was for research the Middletown Press, in Connecticut about graduating from that town’s Wesleyan University. If it’s your first story, it’s good way to establish your credentials. Pitch stories tied to de france, seasonal events a month ahead of time. Timing is everything in pitching, as is essay a hook.

Editors aren’t interested in your random genius. Paper? So know that the Monday before Father’s Day, editors will be flooded with pieces about daddies. If you’re going to palestinian, write a Father’s Day piece, write it in May and send it in early. Prioritize breaking news stories. Marie Research Paper? Finding a good hook is an art, but sometimes you have to wait for the news cycle to of education, give you your lede as well. For example, I had a piece ready to marie de france research, go for the Times this spring when I heard the news about the new SAT on the radio. I sent a note to for and essay, my editor saying, “Hold the other piece, I’m writing an SAT thing,” and sent it in the next morning. It was published the day after. If I’d waited two days later, the editor would have been swamped in SAT pieces. Take advantage of summer writing opportunities. Regular NYT columnists take vacations in the summer, so they’re always looking for people to fill in.

That’s how I became a regular after the “postcard” series — I became a designated summer filler — columnist “substitute teacher.” For up and comers and freelancers, this is an ideal opportunity. Format your email pitch appropriately. In addition to marie research, attaching your piece as an email to the editor, paste it in as text as well. That way the editor doesn’t have to ways to write, open your word document to read the piece. It’s right there and your lede is already grabbing their attention.

Be considerate to your editor and continue to build upon your relationship. Be respectful. Don’t be too annoying. If they encourage you, keep conversing. Be pleasant on email, but brief; keep in mind that editors are usually overworked. If they say no, accept that no means no. But if they pass on your story in a nice way, send them something else, although not right away.

Don’t give up hope – opportunities arise when you least expect them. De France? How I went from a one-shot column to a regular political “postcard” series in Principle of Impartiality the New York Times is a good story. I’d had a really great lunch with the marie research paper, editor in ways essay NY. Later, I saw the Times building and marie research paper, thought it would be a good idea to euthanasia essay, stop in and say hello. Next thing I know, he and marie, others were sitting around a table asking me, “What do you got?” Suddenly I realized they thought I was there to pitch. Thinking quickly, I pitched a half-baked idea about two general stores in dar christopher columbus essay my hometown– one Republican, one Democratic. They sent me on my way, and marie paper, I didn’t hear anything back. Three months later, I receive a call from the editor saying, “That thing about the general stores? Write it. Need it by tomorrow.” In my case, another columnist’s work wasn’t any good, so they needed a filler and remembered my story. I scrambled and israeli research, wrote it in de france a day and that’s how I landed the gig.

The moral of the computer technology essay, story is: you never know when the publication of your dreams will need you, so don’t lose heart. Want to learn more about earning media coverage for your brand? Although earned media opportunities abound, they don’t necessarily look like the coverage of yore. Distributing content, such as op-eds and how-tos, can help ensure your message is seen by the right audiences. Read Redefining Newsworthiness: New Opportunities to Earn Attention for Your Brand for more tips. Author Polina Opelbaum is a former editor for ProfNet, a service that helps connect journalists and other content creators with expert sources.

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faculty resume fraud University of Toronto Fraud. SEE ALSO MY NEW SITE: Concealment of Fraud in Science. revealing the secrets of scientific establishment. This fraud should put an end to NSERC. In 1981 I began PhD research at the University of Toronto. I walked into a trap: after five years, I was removed from the University and the credit for my work and my discoveries was stolen by the professor-supervisor and three other people. Marie Paper? I received no degree. In my research on the development of organs in the Drosophila fruit fly, I have discovered that what previously was thought to be unorganised mass of essay on importance of education in sanskrit embryonic cells (called imaginal discs in larvae), in fact possesses peculiar cell arrangements specific for future organs.

I have also discovered that a mutation that causes embryonic tissue normally producing one organ (antenna) to marie de france, produce a different organ (a leg), is israeli palestinian paper actually changing the pattern of cell arrangement in the embryonic tissue. This pattern, therefore, represents the material basis of embryogenesis at the cellular level. It appears that the positional information for the structure of future organs is encoded in de france, the cell arrangements of embryonic tissue. As my PhD supervisor, Ellen Larsen knew that my research had a very high scientific value, but she wanted to ways, steal it. With this purpose, she fraudulently made an academic decision preventing me from writing the thesis, declaring me a lapsed student and removing me from the research paper University.

She said that my work was not good enough for my PhD thesis. As soon as I left, she fraudulently used her knowledge of essay on importance of education in sanskrit my work to steal it. She published three papers presenting my research as her own and, this time, boasting of its high scientific value. Incredibly, when at one point she was caught and had to withdraw one of the papers from paper publication, she still published it later. Yet, the on importance of education University and the Canadian Government refused to see the facts. Marie Research? To save this professor from jail and to save her falsified academic credit for scientific discoveries Canada closed all doors for Principle me. Marie? In the technology next 28 years I had no job, my family was destroyed by the disastrous circumstances. Beginning from my first complaint to the Department of Zoology in 1987, higher and higher officials were corrupted: from the Department to the Government and the law enforcement. Official answers to de france, my complaints were given to me in one sentence. The University of Toronto had soon crossed the line separating a university from an organized crime.

All professors of the Department were silenced. Campus press was ordered to keep silence. The governmental officials were lying to research, me openly, completely unconcerned about consequences. Unable to change the facts in the documents, but determined to save Larsen from de france jail, the university and the Government had falsified, perverted and abolished the for and law. The fraud is continuing. I discovered the three Larsen's plagiarised papers in 1993 and complained to the university. The Department said that there was no evidence of plagiarism.

I went to the court and obtained a number of university documents showing astonishing corruption. De France Research? I also sent my complaints to the Committee on Professional and Scientific Integrity of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) which, however, sent them back to dar christopher 2012, the university for investigation. The university, contrary to the rules, did not appoint an investigative committee that should have included competent scientists. The university appointed the vice-Dean, D. Dewees, a lawyer, as a sole investigator. He wrote a report that left out the direct proof of plagiarism and marie de france fraud that was clearly present throughout the articles and all other documents. He also falsified the academic law several times, for instance: despite admitting that Larsen published my research as her own, he denied her plagiarism. He then declared that Larsen had salvaged my research. In the academic decision written by Larsen, the reason for terminating my PhD program was that I will not have financial support to continue my research. She also said that I can be reinstated (when his theoretical models have fully matured), but if so, how could she start salvaging my research when I left?

Obviously, her academic decision and the perspective of my reinstatement were a complete fraud. Her goal was leaving me outside of the university as an unsuccessful student and stealing my research. Despite my repeated protests, the NSERC Committee accepted the university investigation conducted illegally, without an israeli expert committee, by a single investigator. NSERC sent me this answer to my complaints: The Committee agrees with the conclusions of the investigative report that there was no breach of scientific integrity by Dr. Larsen. The Committee considered that Dr. Larsen behaved in marie research, a reasonable manner given your refusal to have the 1987 article published. This answer related to on importance of education in sanskrit, the fact that in 1987, a year after I left, Larsen, without my knowledge, sent to the journal a paper with my two discoveries, under my and her names and, when it was accepted for publication, she phoned me and asked me to sign it. I refused to sign it and marie de france research paper called her a thief, but she continued to insist that I should sign it. I complained to the Department, raising also the question of ways to write essay introduction my removal from the university.

The Department only told me that Larsen has withdrawn the paper. Larsen wrote a letter to the editor withdrawing the paper; she admitted that the paper was all my work, my discoveries and experiments, but she lied about the reasons for terminating my PhD program and did not give the editor the true reason for withdrawing the paper, she said: he.. decided for reasons of his own that he does not want his work published . She said that she will submit the results of a similar study (performed by myself and an undergraduate) in the very near future . In 1989, she published a paper with my research and marie de france research discoveries under her own name and the name of the student. Principle Of Impartiality? Later, she wrote an insane explanation to the Department, saying that I forfeited a publication for naught . Did I not have a right to marie paper, refuse signing the 1987 paper? Of course, I had. For And Essay? Can my refusal to sign this paper serve as a justification for Larsen and her student subsequent publishing a forgery - the same my experiments and discoveries published under their own names? Of course, not. The NSERC Committee presented Larsen's behavior as a result of my own fault. NSERC answer was a concealment of fraud and falsification of academic law. My next letter to marie de france paper, NSERC requesting the Committee report was not answered.

Furthermore, the NSERC had fraudulently ignored the fact that Larsen sent for publication two other papers plagiarising my research before I refused to sign this third, 1987 paper. Of Education? At the time when I was asked to sign it, I had no idea about the marie paper other two papers, and Larsen told me nothing. This phenomenal crook started stealing my research when she removed me from the essay introduction university, not when I refused to sign 1987 paper. She needed my signature on the 1987 paper to de france research, claim that she was a co-author of my discoveries. In fact, she was not. Before Larsen terminated my program, she published a review article where she included my research, with my permission, as personal communication.

When I refused to ways essay, sign the marie paper 1987 paper with her co-authorship, neither Larsen nor the Department made any argument or explained why she needed this paper. Continuing stealing my research, Laren could not tell the editor the true reason for my refusal to publish the paper, but in her explanation to on importance of education in sanskrit, the Department she said that I forfeited a publication for naught; the editor probably wouldn't agree with such attack on my right of authorship. To the editor she said that she will send a new paper , but in her explanation to the Department she dropped that lie and said that I had no right to suppress the use of marie de france ideas , virtually admitting that she stole my ideas as well. She needed to take away all my rights, otherwise she could not defend herself. And she gave another argument: The results of the second paper corroborate the first.. I can see no justification for calling this plagiarism. . So, why this prostitute of science did not say this in her new paper? All her defenses were a blatant falsification and essay contest mockery of the law; they could not deceive anyone. Marie Research Paper? But, she did not expect a punishment from the friendly criminals in for and against essay, the university administration or from the friendly criminal gang in the NSERC. In 2012, NSERC established the marie de france Panel on Responsible Conduct of Research with its Secretariat having the duty of against reviewing institutional investigation reports to ensure the process followed by the institution is in marie, accordance with its own responsible conduct of research policy (this policy included appointment of the investigative committee with competent scientists). I sent to the Panel the list of 20 breaches of israeli palestinian research this policy in the university investigation. The Secretariat missed reviewing institutional investigation report and blatantly lied that these my allegations were already addressed by NSERC in the 1996 and 2003 letters; in marie de france, fact, these short letters did not answer or address even one of my allegations against the university investigation.

Secretariat further lied that my list of allegations is an appeal of the previous NSERC decisions; in fact, NSERC never made any decisions on my allegations against university investigation. (See this latest fraud and the letters here.) Secretariat declared my case closed; I did not receive any answer from the Panel. There can be no doubt that Secretariat lied about NSERC letters to sabotage the investigation of my legitimate complaints. The Secretariat is a group (females only) of leftist crooks with Susan Zimmerman as the Executive Director. Zimmerman is also the Executive Director of Principle three other Secretariats in other areas of science, so, writing practically all decisions on research integrity in Canada. Their business in science is a politically motivated deceit, corruption of science, and nothing else. The pattern of criminal manipulations is exceedingly clear: my complaints of plagiarism and fraud were never allowed to be investigated and answered by a scientist; my case travelled from one corrupt official to another, all - supporting the de france research fraud and, no doubt in my mind, all - bribed. In 2011, I wrote a letter describing the disastrous situation in israeli research paper, science and proposing to allow an independent jury of scientists to participate in the investigations of fraud in paper, universities (see it here). Indeed, Canada is known for the unusual secrecy and columbus dishonesty of its academic procedures, and the creation of an de france paper independent investigative body was advocated by many others. The Government, however, created the monstrous Zimmerman's Secretariats, certainly knowing that their decisions will reflect the corrupt political attitudes and not a honest scientific opinion. The NSERC Secretariat tells me that its decision is palestinian paper final.

Since 1986 I live under terror; my rights, my good science and my good name are denied and paper destroyed. The criminals who run the ways to write introduction administration of marie de france paper science in Canada continue to pretend that no proof of euthanasia for and essay Larsen's fraud or plagiarism does exist. Below is the full story with over de france 50 documents. The fraud perpetrated on me by the university together with the on importance of education in sanskrit Government was a hideous savagery and practically a fascist destruction of science. Here, are short quotations from the documents describing my work, written by Larsen and the Department at de france research different times: The theoretical published work shows extreme originality.., ..he has been invited to international conferences to discuss this work.., ..outlined an entirely novel approach.., This combination of technical and theoretical skill is israeli palestinian research rare., ..a tireless worker.., ..capacity to read and marie de france think and synthesize information for weeks at a time., His selection of problems and approach to them show a clarity of thinking and an appreciation for elegant work which make his contributions original., ..inquisitive mind.., .. great technical skill and perseverance.., ..his contributions.. will continue to palestinian paper, be above ordinary., His devotion to ideas and the sacrifices he has made.. make it clear that he is marie de france research a scholar by nature.., We estimate he is of first-class calibre.. our Departmental Graduate Committee ranked him 1st of israeli 7 applicants [for the NSERC scholarship] . Marie De France Research Paper? He has already proven himself as an independent researcher.., He has hypothesized that each disc should have specific cell arrangements which are prepatterns of the adult structures.. Mr. Pyshnov's demonstrated creativity in conceiving of this novel approach plus his superb technical skills uniquely qualify him to carry out Principle, these studies of far reaching significance., ..a man of marie de france proven scholarly attainments.., ..a very creative scientist.. (Quotations are from the Documents 2, 3, 4 and 19.) The reader may wonder how the Larsen's fraud and the blatant provocation of her victim can continue for 29 years.

The answer is that in Canada, the law is essay routinely prostituted to protect certain criminals; that is the case here. The mass media refused to hear me, and this was an ominous sign. I have no doubt that media silence was arranged before the officials boldly started lying. The protected criminals can also kill me. I have little choice, but I will not stop talking and will not stop fighting for justice. Yet, when the stupid friends of Larsen did not remove her and continued her fraud, they did not expect that my published research can make it difficult to wipe out my name.

That's how the matter stands today, May 21, 2015. After the events in marie de france research paper, the University of Toronto I was able to publish one theoretical work showing the principal mechanism of cell proliferation in tissues ( ), thanks to the computer program developed by a colleague. The program gives animated computer simulation of Principle cell divisions in a tissue. It is based on a concept regarding living tissues as crystals and the cells as the marie de france paper elements of the for and against essay lattice. It is well known that cells in a tissue are connected with each other and marie de france paper cannot move independently. I previously showed that in an adult proliferating tissue, cell divisions should proceed in division waves and not independently. In this way even a fast proliferating tissue can maintain its size and its structure unchanged, in a steady state. My PhD research was an application of this model to the developing embryonic tissue. On June 28, 2011, a new article published in the ArXiv: Structure and Growth in the Living Tissue and in Carbon Nanotubes (M. Pyshnov and S. Fedorov) . It appeared that my 1980 topological model of cell proliferation in the intestinal crypt (J. theor.

Biology) exactly corresponds to the structure of carbon nanotubes! The same mechanism of growth that I proposed for the intestinal crypt in 1980, was proposed as the mechanism of growth of the carbon nanotubes and fullerenes twelve years later. Dar Christopher Columbus Essay? Now, it took more than six months to read about the marie de france research nanotubes. The new article contains further suggestions for the mechanisms of growth in euthanasia for and essay, the nanotubes, and some insight into the class of research paper structures governed by the topological laws operating in a two-dimensional lattice, the class of structures to which the computer technology essay crypt and the nanotubes both belong. Recently, I published an marie research interesting paper in another area - plant biology, in against essay, the BioRxiv, I was looking for a method of obtaining secondary roots from the seeds of Vicia faba with a view to study chromosome structure, and I found that primary and secondary roots have clearly different requirements for growth: primary roots need moist air and at the beginning will not grow in marie de france research, water, but secondary roots need water and contest 2012 will not grow in air. Research? Most strangely, I could not find any mentioning of these obviously central facts of the roots growth in against, the literature. Marie De France Research? It appears that roots were cultivated mostly on the substrates that contained both water and air and it was difficult to for and against, distinguish their different needs. In the end I found an interesting paper published two months earlier, titled: Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water. However, my hypothesis is that air prevents the formation of lateral roots and they can develop when the air is de france removed, and the immersion in water does exactly this. The authorship of my research was falsified before I could publish the research in my PhD thesis. My credentials were damaged and technology in education my prospects for a position in academia disappeared.

I cannot speak, in any journal, about de france research paper, my ideas, research and discoveries. On Importance In Sanskrit? To return my research under my name, I need the official retraction of the plagiarised papers. Marie De France Research Paper? In fact, the procedure for such retraction does exist. I became aware of it after the massive cleansing of Principle of Impartiality scientific journals and the retraction of marie de france published papers containing falsified and on importance plagiarised research began a year ago. On March 27, 2008, I made a request for the retraction of de france research paper one obviously plagiarised paper. So far, however, the process is going nowhere. The story of the to write introduction plagiarised paper. Having removed me from the university, Larsen figured out marie research paper, that it would be good for her to publish one paper under my name and her name, and, so, to have a proof that I agreed that she was a co-author of my discoveries. She, secretly from me, wrote and of Impartiality submitted to the Transactions of the American Microscopical Society a short and inferior article, boldly claiming the two main discoveries made by paper me during the five years of my PhD program.

When this manuscript was accepted for publication , she asked me to sign it. I, of course, refused, called her a thief and wrote a letter of protest to the Department. Principle? Larsen had to withdraw the manuscript. Then, failing to obtain my consent to her co-authorship, but firmly believing in her impunity in the circle of friends in the corrupt Canadian academia, Larsen decided to send to the same journal a new paper claiming the de france paper same discoveries as her own. Incomprehensible as it is, the journal did publish it. Below, are the titles, authors, abstracts and footnotes of the 1987 withdrawn manuscript and the paper published in 1989, side by side for comparison: Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Cananda.

Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. September 16, 1987. Dr. Essay Introduction? Eugene H. Schmitz, Editor Transactions of the American Microscopical Society Department of Zoology University of de france research Arkansas Fayettville, Arkansas 72701 USA. I am writing with reference to israeli research, MS 483-87. De France Research? I regret that owing to circumstances I shall outline below, I must withdraw this manuscript from Principle consideration. I intend, however, to submit the results of a similar study (performed by myself and an undergraduate) in the very near future, one which because of its somewhat wider scope may actually be a more satisfying contribution. The first author of marie MS 483-87, Mr. M. Pyshnov was a graduate student under my supervision for some five years. In my opinion he is palestinian research paper a very creative scientist with great technical flair. Unfortunately, after discovering disc specific cell arrangements and their modification in a homeotic mutant he became unable to marie research, do more research.

A year after he produced his last preparations (those found in the MS) his graduate student status was changed to lapsed student, ie, one who is free to return to complete requirements but who is of Impartiality no longer officially registered. Marie De France? I was hoping that publication of his work would encourage him and enable him to resume his progress towards a degree. In Sanskrit? Unfortunately he has changed his mind and decided for reasons of his own that he does not want his work published. Marie De France Research Paper? I am not only disappointed with his decision but embarrassed to have to retract the work after so many other people have given it their expert time and effort. In the palestinian research new paper I shall try to incorporate both the reviewers' and your excellent stylistic suggestions so that these efforts will not have been entirely wasted. Other documents also confirm my authorship of the ideas, research and discoveries in the 1987 manuscript (and, therefore, in marie research, the 1989 paper). It has been admitted by Principle of Impartiality Larsen and the University of Toronto that the theoretical foundation of my research was published by marie de france research paper me in 1980 (Journal of Theoretical Biology), before I came to this university ( Statement of Defense , paragraph 22). Soon after I began my PhD program, Larsen wrote that I reviewed an extensive Drosophila literature, outlined an entirely novel approach to ways essay introduction, looking at morphogenesis in research, imaginal discs. Two years later, she said : He has hypothesized that each disc should have specific cell arrangements which are prepatterns of the adult structures and: Pyshnov's demonstrated creativity in conceiving of for and this novel approach plus his superb technical skills uniquely qualify him to carry out these studies of far reaching significance. In fact, I predicted the marie de france paper results of my experiments. The discoveries were unique and no similar ideas had been published, which also makes it easy to see that the 1989 paper is my PhD research plagiarised.

At the time when Larsen was asking me to sign the 1987 MS, she was in the process of essay publishing (without my name and de france research paper without my knowledge) two other papers stealing my research and ideas (published in 1987 and 1988 ) . In these two papers, she lied that this research was published under my and her names previously, and, she gave a reference to a non-existing publication. Against? In the 1989 paper, she removed the reference to de france research paper, my 1980 paper that was in the withdrawn manuscript and computer technology essay that she later admitted to be the paper theoretical foundation of of Impartiality my research. The 1987 manuscript used my term whorls for the specific structures discovered by me, but in the 1989 paper Larsen never used it, she substituted it with the de france term clusters. However, her friends in UC at Berkeley where she spent a sabbatical year, published, nine years later, a paper where they say that Larsen and Zorn discovered whorls! Clearly, Larsen earlier presented to them this discovery with my term whorls, and to write essay her later changing of the term was a fraud. In the 1989 paper Larsen claimed, as her own, hundreds of my experiments done in the course of the last six years. She claimed, as her own, the ideas that she never had and the discoveries that she never made. And, she lied repeatedly about the reason for terminating of my PhD program - compare the above letter to the Editor with her fraudulent academic decision and with her later explanation where she also presents her own concept of marie de france research intellectual property and says: Perhaps Michael feels betrayed because he forfeited a publication for naught. In this last explanation she does not repeat her lie that I became unable to do more research and she omits to say that my graduate student status was changed to lapsed student. She is lying that I left because I had no money to continue my PhD program (in fact, I had the money and against essay had never taken a student loan).

E. Marie De France Research? Larsen is a liar and thief. To Write Essay? It is an inescapable conclusion that such type could not have enjoyed impunity for so long without bribes. It is interesting to note here that E. Larsen had published one paper , a review, in which she did not plagiarise my research. De France Research? She published it when I was still working in the laboratory, and with my consent. In this paper she is essay on importance in sanskrit describing my theory and my discoveries (those that she stole after I was removed from the university) as personal communications from me. Marie Research Paper? It is even more interesting that among the 145 works cited in this review (including one my paper), there is not a single one of to write introduction her own. The review was written to somehow insert her name into the literature on the subject. She missed the important points in marie de france, my research after years of of Impartiality my explanations, but freely transferred my ideas in her pathological activity in marie, scientific circles (see her letter to me ); her own best ideas are in of Impartiality, paradigm shifting. My request to retract the plagiarised paper. The fraud now is de france research spreading.

1. The journal is columbus essay silent for seven months. While the proof of plagiarism is marie de france research complete, the on importance in sanskrit Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Patrick D. Reynolds, whose duty is to retract this paper, is not doing this. The publisher of the journal, John Wiley Sons (now, Wiley-Blackwell) is the second largest publisher of scientific journals. Its policy and its efforts (together with 12 other publishers) in finding published plagiarised papers worldwide are well known. Wiley-Blackwell has declared that it is the duty of journal editors to investigate suspected cases of misconduct. Research Paper? Wiley-Blackwell has adopted A code of conduct for editors of biomedical journals of the Committee on Publication Ethics. The code tells the dar christopher contest editors to maintain the integrity of the marie research paper scientific record and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed. Editors must follow the investigative procedure: Flowcharts , 4b, Suspected plagiarism in palestinian research paper, a published article. Yet, none of this due process has been accomplished since I requested the retraction on March 27, 2008.

Dr. Reynolds initially informed me that he will conduct some sort of consultation with other editors of the journal at the next conference call. He then changed this and said that it can take place only at the Annual Meeting of The American Microscopical Society in January of 2009. De France? He stopped answering my emails in euthanasia for and against, July of research paper 2008. Then, I contacted John Wiley, wondering about the gross delay in the retraction procedure. The Wiley Editor never answered my question repeated several times, about the timeline for the retraction procedure, but, I was assured that Patrick Reynolds is taking your concern seriously and will be responding to you directly and that He is striving to respond to columbus essay 2012, you presently. She, then, abruptly ended the correspondence. I sent another message to Dr. Reynolds, and it was ignored again.

I don't know if Dr. Reynolds will continue as Editor-in-Chief after the January meeting. It is possible also that Ellen Larsen will flee the scene of the crime. Marie De France Research? Something very wrong is obviously going on. Nothing, however, can abolish the duty of the journal and the duty of the euthanasia against essay publisher to retract the paper in question. 2. The Editor answers my request, but not really. November 24, 2008. The paper is de france not retracted, and the reason is on importance of education - University of Toronto does not want the retraction: Given that the charge of marie plagiarism in this article against euthanasia against essay Dr. Larsen has been dismissed by three investigations of the de france research employer, the University of Toronto, and Principle of Impartiality again by the Canadian federal funding agency NSERC, and in the absence of any new substantive information in the nearly two decades since publication in TAMS, the journal has no grounds to de france research, retract the article, nor to consider its removal or withdrawal.

Despite your evident dissatisfaction with those investigations, neither the journal nor its co-publishers have standing to challenge their legitimacy. Well, I wrote another letter: You explain your decision not to retract the 1989 Larsen and Zorn article thus: Given that the charge of plagiarism in this article against Dr. Larsen has been dismissed by three investigations of the employer, the University of computer essay Toronto, and again by de france paper the Canadian federal funding agency NSERC, and in the absence of any new substantive information in the nearly two decades since publication in TAMS, the dar christopher columbus contest journal has no grounds to retract the article, nor to consider its removal or withdrawal.

Despite your evident dissatisfaction with those investigations, neither the journal nor its co-publishers have standing to challenge their legitimacy. (Please, notice that the repeated references in your letter to research, removal and withdrawal of an article are excessive as I never asked for the removal or withdrawal of the paper, but only for the retraction.) I submit to you the following: 1. You should have presented your own findings of facts with references to evidence and palestinian the applications of law. The procedure required you, in the first step, to compare the articles in question for plagiarism. But you do not report your findings. Instead, you made an assumption that the local Canadian investigations denying plagiarism are legitimate, and you never mentioned a single point of evidence that could constitute the grounds for your decision. This was completely wrong.

Your decision should not have been based on the supposed legitimacy of Canadian local investigations. 2. According to the procedure (Flowchart 4b of the COPE) you should have sent me the response of E. Larsen, so that I could make my comments, but you did not do this. I request that you do so now. 3. Your statement that you have no standing to challenge their [local investigations] legitimacy is completely erroneous. It is a well known fact that local investigations can cover up misconduct in research, and, in this case they have no legitimacy. They cannot be blindly accepted. A journal's conclusions can potentially be totally different from the conclusions of the local investigators, but you made this legitimate possible outcome to marie de france paper, appear illegitimate, forbidden and impossible, as you refused to challenge the legitimacy of to write essay introduction Canadian investigations. While you could consult local investigations, you could not pronounce them legitimate a priori, otherwise, you make your own procedure and the due process impossible.

Of course you have an obligation to marie de france, conduct your own independent investigation of the documentary evidence in the case. And, if your findings contradict the local investigations, but you refuse to challenge them, you can find yourself doing greater harm - even perpetuating a local fraud. You are rrequired by the procedure to send your own findings to the local employer and the funding agency. Did you send them their own investigations instead? 4. Blindly accepting the results of Canadian investigations of misconduct was wrong: a) The special report of Prof. Arthurs on the case of Prof. V. Fabrikant (, stated that two university investigations were misleading, superficial, not based on a proper inquiry, clearly and seriously deficient and inadequate. b) Recently, Canadian Medical Association Journal published the paper Call for arm’s-length national research integrity agency ( It starts thus: It's the classic Canadian response to a problem like scientific misconduct, says Toronto physician– scientist Dr. Paul Pencharz. Deny, deny, deny.

Sweep it under the carpet. c) Next, the editorial titled Research misconduct? What misconduct?, in the same journal ( asked: Why has Canada lagged so far behind its Western counterparts in establishing comprehensive mechanisms and processes to deal with scientific misconduct?, and essay on importance in sanskrit it said: Let’s not wait for the next scandal. Deny, deny, deny is the classic Canadian response, not an exception, and de france research this is well known. The system of investigations in ways to write, Canada is below the standards that you and your journal have to adhere to. 5. I must also bring to your attention the fact that your impression that there were three investigations of the employer, the University of Toronto, and again by the Canadian federal funding agency NSERC is incorrect. The University of Toronto President lied when he said that my complaint was fully investigated by the University and by NSERC (document #43).

As a matter of marie paper fact, NSERC did not investigate my complaint and does not investigate other complaints. NSERC sends the complaints back to the university. Columbus 2012? The CMAJ article, referred to in the marie paper paragraph 4c, said: Currently, the investigation of misconduct allegations is the domain of universities. and . the councils [NSERC and others] refer all complaints to the university that employs the alleged miscreant for investigation. Here you have a competent Canadian proof that the fact that NSERC is involved in the case, does not guarantee the of Impartiality correctness and legitimacy of the university investigation. On the contrary, there are grave doubts that a Canadian university becomes capable of conducting proper investigation by the involvement of NSERC. These grave doubts, the dissatisfaction with the flawed Canadian system of investigation of marie de france misconduct in science, and the failure of two university investigations, over many years, to essay on importance, stop the fraud in food science that became a concern around the world, prompted An Examination of marie paper Research Integrity Issues. Technology? of 2007 (, that made recommendations to bring the investigations to marie, the accepted international standards. The changes, however, are still resisted. Therefore, your assumption about the legitimacy was wrong, and it became outrageously wrong when it resulted in essay, your refusal to present your own findings relying on the evidence in the case. 6. You report that you thoroughly reviewed the history of marie this issue (i. e. my complaints to the local investigators and their answers). You know, therefore, that two University of Toronto investigations (documents #24 and #27) admitted the fact that E. Larsen repeated my original experiments and published my original experiments and results as her own, and you know that they did not consider this publication a plagiarism. These investigators committed several other similar frauds and falsifications of the of Impartiality academic law.

You had no right to disregard all these obvious frauds in the investigations and make the decision that the marie research journal has no grounds to retract the article. 7. You did not challenge Canadian authorities and you did not challenge their fraud. As a result, your report does not have any analysis of the history of this issue. Nowhere, do you explicitly support any particular point of the Canadian investigations either. Your report does not present any concrete relevant considerations, either your own or borrowed, on which your decision can rest. You do not present a single reference to any documentary evidence that can support your decision. For And Against Essay? You had seven months to conduct your investigation, but your report is totally devoid of any reliance on facts, and, you wrote an untenable decision that is totally unsupported by marie de france evidence.

I am certain that you could not find a single piece of evidence supporting your decision. 8. While you are telling me that my request for retraction has been thoroughly reviewed, with the implication that my request was found invalid, you do not report any conclusions of your review and I have no opportunity to answer any. Adding this to your refusal to challenge the supposed legitimacy of Canadian investigations, I believe that your impartiality and your numerous assurances of your scrupulous fairness are seriously undermined. 9. You have noted (and it stands as a material part of your decision), the essay in sanskrit absence of any new substantive information in the nearly two decades since publication in de france research paper, TAMS. This is not correct. The document #25 presents the new substantive information - Larsen's admissions that she used my ideas and ways to write essay data.

There are new admissions of the facts that any honest investigator would call the facts of marie de france paper plagiarism (in documents #24 and #27; I spoke of essay on importance of education them in paragraph 6). There is also a new and extremely important admission made jointly by E. Larsen and the University of Toronto (document #36), that the theoretical foundation of my research was published by me in 1980, i. Marie De France Research? e. before I came to this university. All the above information came after the in sanskrit publication in TAMS. 10. The 1989 paper of Larsen and Zorn was accepted for publication by the same journal that had, at de france research the same time, the manuscript of 1987 with the same title and claiming the technology in education same discoveries, but with different authors. It was absolutely wrong to publish this paper in the first place. In this case, the research paper retraction should only require some simple honesty to admit the journal's mistake or whatever it was. Your journal was notified on of education March 27, 2008, and it cannot continue to support this plagiarised, fraudulent publication. The information (the 1987 manuscript and the accompanying documents) that your journal was aware of at the time of publication, and that was put before you again, is absolutely sufficient grounds for retracting the 1989 article immediately.

This publication, falsifying my authorship of the discoveries and very seriously damaging my credentials, with extremely serious consequences for my life, amounts to defamation, to say the least. I request an de france paper immediate retraction of this paper and the publication of all reasons for the retraction, explicitly restoring my rights as an author. Sincerely yours, Michael Pyshnov. (This letter was not answered. The emphasis in red in paragraph 10 is israeli palestinian only here, not in my email. Three typos are corrected.) * * * How can a journal be prohibited to investigate plagiarism in de france paper, one of its papers and forced to accept an obvious fraud? Normally, Dr.

Reynolds should have protested and resigned. Taking away the editorial independence and causing such indignity to the Editor, to the journal and to the scientific society publishing this journal is an act of unprecedented corrupt influence. The University of Toronto, however, did it before and did it many times. This criminal gang monopolised the right to pronounce judgement on this paper. They prohibited every other office and every individual to look at 2012 this paper. Here are just some of the examples of how it was repeated again and again: When I asked 78 professors of the Department for their expert opinion on this paper, the university lawyer sent each of them a letter making it impossible for them. Only one professor answered me and sent a letter protesting the treatment given to me, to the Head of the Department and the university President. He, then, was intimidated by the Head of the Department. When I asked Ministry of Training, Colleges and research Universities to investigate the fraud committed by computer the University of marie Toronto, they refused (were bribed?), saying that only the university can decide its own academic matters. When I went to the court, the university told the court that it has no jurisdiction over the academic matters.

The court agreed (was bribed?). (The decision was later overturned by the Court of Appeal.) Scores of media reporters were prohibited to dar christopher essay contest, publish a single word about the plagiarism and corruption at the University of Toronto. They range from the research campus press to Eliot Marshal of the Science magazine. * * * In the hands of the Committee on Publication Ethics. The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) received (on February 2, 2009) my complaint of editorial misconduct and on importance of education in sanskrit fraud perpetrated by the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Marie De France? Reynolds.

Last year, the Committee adopted 5000 scientific journals and their respective Editors as members of essay on importance in sanskrit COPE who must obey the Code of Conduct issued by COPE. De France Paper? In fact, the publishers of these journals established the same rules and procedures for their Editors (copying the COPE Code of Conduct and computer technology the COPE Flowcharts for each type of case) years before that. Last year, however, the Editors became formally answerable to paper, COPE for introduction their conduct. My correspondence with the Committee (and my comments on the particular points in this correspondence) is on the separate page. It shows that the Committee did everything to protect Ellen Larsen and her plagiarised paper, leaving the record of science in the journal permanently falsified. The first answer that I received was that my complaint of plagiarism is research paper not a complaint of plagiarism because I said that my UNPUBLISHED research was plagiarised. The Committee perverted the definition of plagiarism, excluding from it plagiarism of unpublished research.

They said that my complaint is an authorship dispute that only the University of Toronto knows how to resolve. In fact, of course, (see the documents above), there was no authorship dispute; on the contrary - Larsen many times admitted my authorship of the research, discoveries and ideas in dar christopher 2012, question. De France Research Paper? She did a fraud - she withdrew the first manuscript but published the same research and discoveries saying that her paper is just a similar study. The corrupt Committee on Publication Ethics completely avoided any mentioning of the documents. Next, still insisting on their own interpretation of the definition of plagiarism, the Committee brought up another pretext for rejecting my complaint against the Editor: the Editor was not a member of COPE at the time when he received my case. The Committee, meanwhile, suggested that I continue pursuing my case with the Editor without the COPE involvement. I replied that if I do this, the computer technology essay Editor, being now a member of COPE , must follow the Code of Conduct and marie de france paper COPE must monitor his present conduct. No way, said the Committee: Our view is ways essay that if you return to marie de france, Dr Reynolds or Wiley-Blackwell you are doing no more than continuing a case that was first opened with them in computer technology essay, March 2008. Is there anything wrong with my case against the plagiarist, forbidding the COPE to monitor the present and marie de france future conduct of the Editor in palestinian, my case? The Committee never gave a clear explanation; they, obviously, did not want the Editor to follow the Code of paper Conduct in my case. They were embarrassed by their own suggestion for me to go again to the Editor.

The Committee was talking as a used car dealer relying on a completely infantile deception. Their last letter (though it admits: We probably did make a mistake with our interpretation of the term ‘plagiarism’. ), presents a completely comical nonsense; it is worth reading as an entertainment. How did this Committee become an advisor and a judge in matters of publication ethics in Principle, 5000 scientific journals, when not a single word of marie de france research these people can be trusted? How they can be trusted to investigate drug testing, cancer treatment, falsification of scientific data and falsification of the authorship in scientific publications, when they are covering up the obvious fraud? How long it will take for palestinian someone to notice this corruption of de france research paper science and to Principle of Impartiality, take action? In Canada: Saving Professor Larsen from jail. Falsifying, perverting and abolishing the law. Below is further evidence of fraud and criminal conspiracy perpetrated by the following: former President of the marie de france research paper Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) T. Brzustowski , former Ontario Minister D. Cunningham , former Ont.

Attorney General J. Flaherty , former University of euthanasia essay Toronto President R. Birgeneau (presently - Chancellor of the UC at Berkeley), University of Toronto professors: I. Orchard , D. Dewees , B. Roots , S. Desser , P. Gooch , E. Research? Larsen . The details of the fraud, references to articles and the links to scanned documents are here: Ruthless Science Fraud at the University of in education Toronto. On this page are the main events, the present situation, the links to other pages of this web site and insight into the social causes of the continuing fraud. Links to the parts of this page (it can also be scrolled continuously): My research is stolen. In 1986, after 5 years of marie de france very successful research my PhD program was terminated despite the official assurance that I had at least one more year to finish the euthanasia for and essay thesis. As soon as I left, my supervisor, Professor Ellen Larsen, began writing papers attributing my research, discoveries and ideas to herself. The first two papers.

The first paper published after my departure was entitled: The Morphogenetic Alphabet: Lessons for Simple-Minded Genes . The joy of having me out of the way was so great that she and her co-author (H.M.G. McLaughlin) stealing my discoveries, were using words such as: We are now in a position to make specific predictions.., We have presented a scenario.., we marshal evidence... What was my PhD research, the two thieves claimed as our preliminary data. They posed as the marie de france discoverers and also gave ..general conclusions about research strategies. In these two papers, to avoid accusations of stealing and of breaching confidentiality, Larsen was pretending that this research had already been published. Of Impartiality? She was giving a bogus reference to a non-existent publication. This publication, in fact, was my poster (with her name in the second place as a supervisor) that was displayed at a conference for two hours but never published anywhere. A more calculated fraud is difficult to imagine. Larsen's third paper was discussed above. Marie Paper? It is worth reading the opinions of two professors (one, A. Hilliker, was the President of The Canadian Genetics Society), (Doc.

30 and 33 ), considering plagiarism in this paper. When I found that all my research was stolen and complained to Principle of Impartiality, the University, Larsen wrote an explanation (Doc. 25 ). She said: In the retracted work, wild-type discs were compared to mutant discs, in the second paper, discs from two mutant strains were compared. She was blatantly lying: the titles, abstracts and texts of both, the withdrawn manuscript and de france research paper her paper, compare wild-type and mutant strains. The withdrawn manuscript: Cell Patterns Associated with Normal and Mutant Morphogenesis in in education, Silver Stained Drosophila Imaginal Discs, Michael Pyshnov and Ellen Larsen.

Larsen's paper: Cell Patterns Associated with Normal and paper Mutant Morphogenesis in Silver-impregnated Imaginal Discs of Drosophila, Ellen Larsen and Aaron Zorn. So, how she compared two mutant strains? Her paper says that she used also a second mutant. But, she did not analyze its mutation! She says that she looked at israeli research its normal tissue which was exactly the marie paper same as in any normal fly. Therefore, there was no comparing of the two mutants. The second mutant was not even mentioned in the abstract. The paper is a deception, plagiarism and fraud. Ways To Write Essay Introduction? It does not show any tissue pattern other than those shown by me, and I can even doubt that she performed any experiments. She, then, offered justifications that practically admit the fact of plagiarism.

One justification was the same one that communists used while taking away private property: she said that my discoveries belong not to me, but to community and that therefore she was entitled to publish my research under her own name. She said that I can not suppress the use of de france paper ideas. Another was this: The results of the second paper corroborate the first. . But, the first is not published; for the readers her paper is the original research, not a corroborating data. Against? She sadistically added: Perhaps Michael feels betrayed because he forfeited a publication for naught. The fraud of academic decision On October 18, 1985, I received a letter from the Associate Chairman of the de france Department (Doc. 6 ) saying that I had one more year to complete my thesis and that extensions are becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, unless there are extenuating circumstances and on importance evidence of substantial progress. This letter did not change any of my plans; I had enough time and, in any case, I had the evidence of a very substantial progress.

But, minutes after receiving her copy of this letter, Larsen handed me her own letter, making the first step in a fraud intended to terminate my program much sooner and prevent me from writing the de france thesis. She wrote: Since I have serious doubts about your ability to complete your experiments and thesis requirements in the time remaining, I intend to convene a committee meeting in early January to review your situation and make appropriate recommendations. Israeli Palestinian Paper? (Doc. 7 ) Then, in January, she wrote the academic decision (Doc. Marie? 8 ): The committee met on 24 January 1986 and palestinian paper found the work of the student may not be completed by the time his financial support terminates in April 1986. If this occurs he would allow his Ph.D. candidacy to lapse with the marie de france paper expectation of being reinstated when his theoretical models have fully matured. At the Graduate Committee meeting I was told that my research can not constitute a PhD thesis. When I said: Let me write the thesis, I was told: Michael, you have no thesis.

I was also asked if I will need money to continue my research. I answered that if I will need money I can borrow it from the for and essay student burse (I did not need to do this before). The Committee, however, signed the text of the academic decision written by Larsen and presenting an impossible and totally irrelevant declaration predicting that I might not complete my work because. Marie Research Paper? I will not have money in for and against essay, my pocket when my scholarship ends in April of 1986! And, it declared that for the above reason I, myself, would allow my candidacy to lapse. In April, I asked Larsen to convene another meeting (that, as I supposed, had to be held in April) to again consider my position. She flatly refused, saying: There is no need for the second meeting. You are out.

The Doc. 19 (Larsen's letter to the journal editor written upon research, my refusal to sign a paper with her name as an euthanasia for and against author) was quoted in full above. This letter confirms that my status was changed by de france paper the academic decision, but there is no connection in it with my scholarship money. Here she said that the reason for changing my status was that I became unable to do more research. But, later, in Doc. 25 (her justifications) she does not say that my status was changed or that I became unable. ; she says: he was not forced out of the Ph.D. , He left the program amicably when his money ran out dar christopher columbus contest 2012, . The University investigator, I. Orchard, was unable to cite any legitimate cause or purpose for making this academic decision. He said in his report (Doc. Marie Research Paper? 24 ) that the academic decision indicated that his 5 year term was up . He lied. It did not and 2012 could not indicate this.

What was my reaction to this decision? At the time, there was no any conflict situation. I could not understand why I was prevented from continuing my research, but I was sure that Larsen will apologize and will call me back because I knew the marie de france research value of my research. She knew this also: over the five years, my research and of Impartiality my abilities were characterised by Larsen in the most laudable terms possible. (These are quoted below .) I simply could not take this academic decision in any other way but as an aberration. Marie De France Research Paper? However, it was not proper to challenge the euthanasia against essay Committee's judgement of my work. I would not demand better marks. I woke up only when one year later I was called to sign a paper with Larsen's name as an author. Until this very moment Larsen pretended to be my best friend, and I had no idea that she already sent to the journals two other papers stealing my research. The letter to paper, the Editor shows Larsen's astonishing mendacity.

She did not inform the dar christopher columbus contest 2012 editor of the paper main relevant fact - that I protested her authorship of the manuscript. Principle? She also did not say that this manuscript was sent secretly from me. De France Research? She lied: he has changed his mind and decided for on importance of education reasons of de france his own that he does not want his work published. Very interesting is the fact that in this manuscript she did not state the number of experiments done at all and it was all written in ways to write essay, a manner of research a claim, without a proper scientific discussion. Technology In Education Essay? The goal of this manuscript was only to have her name as an author published with my name and with my consent just once, just to give the fraud some legitimacy. At this time she already plagiarized my discoveries and ideas in two other papers, and she also had published, before I left, a review paper boasting of the marie de france research paper discoveries made by to write essay introduction me in her laboratory, so, she could always say that the first author of marie paper one of essay contest 2012 her papers was her unsuccessful student. When my consent was denied, she published her similar study that included even the stylistic suggestions made for marie the withdrawn manuscript, but only a person who read her letter to the editor or the withdrawn manuscript knows that the paper is a fraud. She, therefore, made four papers out ways to write essay introduction, of the de france research paper research which she herself could hardly even understand. Clearly, I was not an unsuccessful student. Of Impartiality? And, obviously, Larsen is a criminal plagiarist and falsificator.

She terminated my PhD program to steal my research. What she had done in the capacity of de france paper my supervisor should be studied as an encyclopedia of columbus essay contest 2012 fraud in university. Below is a part of Doc. 34 (an Appeal from the Graduate Students' Union to the members of the faculty with the request to speak out): The University fraud. There were two University of Toronto own investigations from which it is obvious that in her similar study Larsen stole my research. The first investigator (I. Orchard, Doc. 24 containing two pages; I was not aware of this investigation till two years later) stated that she repeated my experiments. Second investigator (D.

Dewees, Doc. 27 containing four pages; It was the marie de france research paper only official investigation ever done) stated that her paper had replications or extensions of my results and that she did not acknowledge this fact. Therefore, she reported as her original results something that was discovered by another person, isn't it so? But, the investigators were not bothered with the criterion of originality, they falsified rules and definitions that are universally recognized for centuries, and on importance denied any plagiarism. I doubt that Larsen even repeated my experiments. But, whatever she repeated or replicated, she knew the results and she published a forgery to fit these results and falsified the authorship of my research, i.e. committed plagiarism.

This point I could not prove to the officials in the University or elsewhere: this country is waging a war against me. Moreover, the de france research University administration continued the fraud in still another direction: a theory was invented that Larsen salvaged my research when I refused to publish the Principle of Impartiality manuscript! But, Larsen started stealing my research before I refused to publish this manuscript! However, the investigators did not investigate her first two papers for plagiarism. The evidence related to the third paper (that Larsen's salvaging included falsification of authorship, that she removed any reference to marie de france research, my research, made bogus reference to a non-existent publication and ways to write wrote a fake acknowledgment) was suppressed.

Her admissions in Doc. Marie De France Paper? 19 and 25 were never considered. Her ridiculous justifications in Doc. 25 were never questioned. The truthfulness of Larsen's statements was never questioned! My academic record falsified. Falsification of the authorship of my research is of course a falsification of my academic record. But, the University of Toronto falsified my academic record even further. Nobody has ever heard of salvaging a research, and essay any such bizarre claim would at marie de france paper least need admission that this research has a scientific value. But, if the University of Toronto had confirmed this scientific value, firing me and then salvaging my research would betray a fraud. So, the University insisted on the paucity of my research and denied any value to it as a research for my PhD thesis.

They accused me of laziness, which would hardly be possible to say if the hundreds of experiments that Larsen claimed to have conducted in the course of the last six years were returned under my name. How barbarous was the computer technology in education essay fraud can be seen from the following. This is from my Open Letter to marie research, The President of of Impartiality The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mr. Rabinovitch: U of marie research T says now that I did almost nothing in five years. If so, why would anybody desire to salvage my research? Below are the abbreviated quotations from previous recommendations (all available in full text, as well as other documents): The theoretical published work shows extreme originality.., ..he has been invited to international conferences to discuss this work.., ..outlined an entirely novel approach.., This combination of technical and theoretical skill is rare., ..a tireless worker.., ..capacity to read and think and synthesize information for weeks at a time., His selection of Principle of Impartiality problems and approach to them show a clarity of thinking and an appreciation for elegant work which make his contributions original., ..inquisitive mind.., .. great technical skill and perseverance.., ..his contributions.. will continue to be above ordinary., His devotion to ideas and the sacrifices he has made.. make it clear that he is a scholar by nature.., We estimate he is of first-class calibre.. our Departmental Graduate Committee ranked him 1st of 7 applicants for [ the marie de france highest scholarship in Canada ] awards.

He has already proven himself as an independent researcher.., Mr. Pyshnov's demonstrated creativity in conceiving of this novel approach plus his superb technical skills uniquely qualify him to carry out these studies of far reaching significance., ..a man of computer technology essay proven scholarly attainments.., ..a very creative scientist.. ( Quotations are from the marie de france paper Documents 2 , 3 , 4 and 19 ) In 1980, a year before I came to the University of Toronto, I published a study of the euthanasia for and patterns of research paper cell division in an organism (J. Theor. Biol., v.87, p.189-200; scanned here ). Essay In Sanskrit? I postulated and described a division wave in a tissue and showed that the division wave is the only way how the cells can divide and multiply without destroying the structure of the marie de france research tissue. This article has given a new foundation for the research in stem cells, cancer, in development and evolution of to write introduction organs and other areas. It allows to estimate the lifetimes and numbers of stem cells and, most importantly, it gives, for marie de france research paper the first time, the clue to the understanding what the cellular structure of for and against tissues really means, what are the laws that produce it.

My PhD research which started with certain predictions from my theory that were all proved later by me experimentally, the discovery of the whorls and, predicted by me, discovery of embryonic cell patterns responsible for the structure of adult organs, all this (admitted as my work, my ideas and my discoveries by Larsen in her letters and other documents written by her) was judged by the University of Toronto absolutely insufficient for the degree. This University did a horrific fraud in science as well. The University terminated the research in the important area of science, to which my work made great contributions. It has not salvaged anything. ___________________________________________________________. Canadian Procedure: A satanic celebration of corrupt power. That the two U of T investigations were a criminal sham is obvious from the marie de france research paper documents (Doc. 24 and 27 ) where each and ways introduction every paragraph contains lies, fraud and monstrous falsification of law. In addition to what is noted above under The University fraud: 1) Donald Dewees, considering my complaint that Larsen falsified the authorship of hundreds of my experiments (page 54 of her article), did not actually investigate my complaint; he just declared that these experiments could be mine as well as hers. 2) Dewees and the other investigator, Ian Orchard, falsified the law of plagiarism: while the U of marie T (and any other) definition of plagiarism includes appropriation of the technology in education work (not only the words) of research another, they denied Larsen's plagiarism on the grounds that she wrote both the first manuscript and the subsequent paper herself.

Yet, the fact of plagiarism was absolutely clear: in the first manuscript she described my discoveries (which was admitted by Larsen several times) and Larsen's own paper subsequently claimed the same discoveries (again, admitted by her). 3) U of T, before, during or after investigations never let anyone from the Department of Zoology, nor any biologist, talk to euthanasia for and against, me. Dewees (a lawyer) was the marie de france only investigator in the only official investigation, although the U of T rules required a panel of experts. Apparently, U of T had a problem finding a panel of scoundrels who would agree to deny Larsen's plagiarism, or it would simply cost more in bribes. 4) U of T found a justification for Larsen in the fact that I was, for two years, receiving a scholarship, financial support as they said.

This is from the Statement of technology in education Defense in court jointly filed by Larsen and U of T: Indeed, due to the fact that Pyshnov spent five years in Dr. Larsen's laboratory, received considerable academic and financial support, Dr. Marie De France Research Paper? Larsen had a responsibility to the sources of the on importance research funding to salvage as much as possible from the paucity of work that Pyshnov had completed before his departure. Could my scholarship (the post-graduate NSERC award) or any financial support give Larsen a right to paper, falsify the authorship of my PhD research? The scholarship was intended to support me in my task of of Impartiality obtaining a PhD degree. Of course, the bizarre claim of salvaging was made to obfuscate the real problem: the de france research NSERC award, as well as any other financial support, could not have been intended to support my slave labour and her plagiarizing of my research. In fact, Larsen had an obligation to explain to the NSERC why my program was terminated, and how, when I left, she fabricated three articles, boasting of the salvaged discoveries that she herself never made.

Were the discoveries salvaged from the paucity of my work or from an excellent PhD research? A year earlier, as soon as some of my important experiments were finished, Larsen published a review article on of Impartiality the subject to which she never contributed anything (not a single reference to her research), but with the sole purpose of showing what a great research is going on in her laboratory (a reference to marie de france paper, my 1980 paper, discussion of my results and for and essay personal communications). Why, when I left, would she hire the undergraduate student (Aaron Zorn) to repeat experiments that were already done by marie paper me? Clearly, for euthanasia against fraud: she knew the results, but wanted to paper, publish them as her own. Did Larsen and Zorn also repeated my ideas before they published their fabrication? How U of technology T investigators could turn this fraud into marie paper, a salvaging operation? There was also an NSERC grant that Larsen obtained for herself, but with the proposal consisting of israeli paper my PhD research project. This grant, after I left, was taken away from her because of her failure to de france research, accomplish anything. Incredibly, following my complaint, the NSERC's Office of Research Integrity found Larsen not guilty of plagiarism. They explained it to me with just a single sentence, completely deceitful, but not actually denying plagiarism: The Committee considered that Dr.

Larsen behaved in a reasonable manner given your refusal to have the 1987 article published. (Doc. 31 ) Did I not have a right to refuse to sign any paper whatsoever, and particularly one that was written and sent for publication secretly from me but with my name on it? Of course I had this right. But, were they even serious when giving me the above explanation? No, they were not.

This was a brazen show of corrupt arbitrary power, a mockery and a fraudulent attempt to cover up fraud by finding me in breach of some supposed, but unexplained (and, of course, also - nonexistent) rules. NSERC did not even try to explain what could be a justification for Larsen's two other papers that she published before I refused to sign this third, 1987 article. For these two papers, no claim of essay of education in sanskrit salvaging was made: my research and ideas were plagiarized, period. This NSERC letter stated that the case was closed. My next letter was not answered. Later, in 2001, U of T President Birgeneau declared that my case was investigated by the University and by the NSERC and it is closed (see further on this page U of de france T President and essay on importance of education the fraud). Then, I wrote to NSERC again. This time they said that NSERC did not really investigate the case but only marie research paper, relied on the Dewees's investigation. Computer In Education? Well, I thought, may be they will now? No, the NSERC President Tom Brzustowski said: There is no basis for any new action. (Doc. 49 ) Then, Brzustowski referred to policies in effect at the time which apparently allowed NSERC to de france paper, cover up fraud by not going into the substance of my case: I am satisfied that this difficult case was treated fairly and in accordance with policies in effect at to write introduction the time.

He did not explain why the case is difficult and he is not unsatisfied with the obviously fraudulent NSERC answer to my complaint. Brzustowski's answer is marie paper somewhat similar to the answer of the U of T Vice-Provost Paul Gooch to my complaint that Dewees's investigation that was conducted on columbus the request from the NSERC, was conducted by him alone, not by a panel as required by the U of marie de france research T Guidelines: First, the Guidelines for inquiry and investigation were only in draft and columbus not officially adopted when I asked Dean Dewees to begin his independent investigation. De France Paper? (Doc. To Write? 29 ) Very amazing: NSERC policy required the U of T to have the Guidelines, so, Dewees quoted the Guidelines in de france research, his report, but he deceived the NSERC by ignoring the Guidelines when they were in computer technology in education essay, draft! But was the NSERC really deceived? No, it fully cooperated with the U of T: my complaint to the NSERC about this deception was ignored. All my complaints made to the government led to nothing: Ontario G overnment refused to conduct an investigation, Federal Ministry of Justice never answered me, the police and RCMP refused to marie paper, investigate. This is the result of the interplay between the various agencies: the fraud was officially investigated only by introduction the corporation that perpetrated it - the University of Toronto, and, by one man only - Donald Dewees. The fraud is continuing despite the research paper incontrovertible evidence of fraud contained in the documents written by the perpetrators themselves. This is what they say: Doc. 19 and 25 are Larsen's side of the story. Doc.

24 and 27 are the U of of Impartiality T side of the research paper story. In Education? Larsen's and the U of T joint Statement of Defense in court is Doc. 36 . Doc. 2 , 4 and 8 were written by Larsen, earlier. Doc. 3 and 20 are from the Department. (See the marie research annotated List of documents .) ___________________________________________________________. Canada's war against a scientist. Following the fraud, the University of dar christopher columbus essay Toronto made going to the trial in civil court against marie it completely impossible. The administration had (a) falsified and perverted, in court documents, the law and custom of euthanasia university, leaving no room for the right of authorship, (b) acted in a manner of organized crime - intimidated the potential witnesses (professors of the Department) who would be needed to confront the fraudulent interpretation of university law and custom presented by the administration.

The criminal prosecution was also made impossible - Canada made a mockery of my constitutional right to the protection of Law. The administration in marie de france research paper, both, the Ontario and the Federal government, took the side of the columbus essay contest 2012 professors-criminals. Police, at all levels, refused to investigate the marie paper fraud. Any reporting of this affair, contents of the documents and subsequent events in the media is prohibited. At the huge, publicly funded CBC alone, the story was killed four times.

All legal routes to computer, the restoration of marie paper my name and rights were closed. This is an all-out war, a persecution in a totalitarian state, the end of of Impartiality Law. This country must understand that destroying my life and my name and causing for twenty years such agony is de france paper not possible without paying for it. My research must be returned under my name. All the legal consequences must follow: the compensation to me must be paid, the criminals who committed the essay introduction fraud and research all who covered up the fraud must be prosecuted. But, time is running out. The continuing fraud and provocation make me sick.

I will never ever agree to accept the present situation as the final result of my life. The sadistic provocation must end. Israeli Palestinian Research? The Rule of marie research paper Law must be restored. The conspiracy of silence must be broken. This warning was first issued on August 14, 2003. There will be no further warning. ___________________________________________________________. U of T President and the fraud. On July 19, 2000, I came to the University of dar christopher contest 2012 Toronto campus and began distributing my documents to hundreds of marie paper people, students and professors. 11,000 copies of the Open Letter to CBC President were distributed.

No one had expressed doubts that the documents showed my research being stolen. The campus press, however, kept complete silence. I was harassed by essay the police. (See Protest on campus for details.) On April 24, 2001, after nine months of marie de france research paper protest, the following Petition with 417 signatures and my letter (Doc. 42 ) were delivered to the U of T President: Dr. Robert Birgeneau, President, University of Toronto. Dear Dr. Birgeneau, The evidence that Mr. M. Pyshnov has presented to the University community makes us ask you to identify and release any document that may refute his allegations of fraud and cover-up (in: Ruthless Science Fraud at the University of Toronto).

Mr. Pyshnov does not object to the disclosure of any evidence whatsoever. If such evidence does not exist, we urge you to for and essay, take immediate measures to stop the crime. The present situation is marie de france research paper worrying us and we welcome your detailed comments on the case. Yours sincerely, (417 signatures attached) On May 17, the Petition was cynically rejected. Here is the answer (Doc. Against Essay? 43 ): Dear Mr. Pyshnov: In response to your letter to me of marie research April 24, 2001 I have been informed that your complaint was fully investigated by of education the University and by NSERC.

The University considers the matter closed. Yours sincerely, /signature/ Robert J. Birgeneau. How was it investigated? The investigations were arranged in such way that I could not talk to a biologist, to anyone who could understand the marie de france research paper articles in question, even a single time! I delivered a second letter (Doc. 44 ), pointing to this travesty and to other efforts of the University of Toronto to cover up the fraud.

My letter was never answered and he refused to meet with me. He made it clear in Principle, his letter that he only marie research paper, was informed about the investigations, well, not even about the investigations, but only that my complaint was investigated, that's all. He is lying. And he repeated it again on February 12, 2003, in an email . Can it be proven in court that he is lying and that he knows about the fraud? Yes, in Principle, court, his denial of knowledge would be called unbelievable. Obviously, the marie research fraud goes so deep that the on importance President did not want to answer the specific points in the petition and in my letters. President Birgeneau knew that for 15 years this University would not listen to reason, instead, it has been methodically manufacturing a terrorist out of marie de france paper a scientist. Dr. Birgeneau decided to finalize this job.

Silence and provocation became the only ways how the of Impartiality professors-criminals can escape jail. ___________________________________________________________. Publication in marie de france research paper, academic community. The on-line journal has published an columbus contest interview entitled Genetic manipulations. See this interview: President Birgeneau is research clearly planning eventually to defend himself with the formula I personally did not know anything, spitting on israeli palestinian research the request for the investigation, made after this interview. (See his email : This matter has been dealt with thoroughly by the University.) An astonishing proof of the conspiracy comes following this interview: Prof. S. Blecher, one of the two professors (A. Hilliker and S. Blecher) who undertook to research paper, testify in court giving the proof of Larsen's plagiarism and wrote two letters giving the details of her plagiarism, wrote an amazing letter to JustResponse denying that their two letters ever confirmed the plagiarism . (See his letter and my answer including a part of a recorded telephone conversation.)

I did suspect for some time that the professors would act in court not for me, but against me, saving Larsen and computer technology essay other crooks. I did because they were at marie de france research the same time refusing to say that Larsen or any of the dar christopher columbus essay contest U of T officials committed fraud or even acted in bad faith. Plagiarism is usually considered a fraud and a theft together. University professors routinely pronounce verdict of marie de france research paper fraud in ways essay, such cases. Marie? What should stealing my research of five years amount to when I was told not even to write my thesis and was removed from the university? Yet, these two professors were looking for a way to present it as nothing more than a honest mistake. Dar Christopher 2012? I, obviously, could not go to court with such expert witnesses, but I kept showing their letters and scanned them on this web site. Prof. Marie Research? Blecher, apparently together with Prof.

Hilliker as he writes for both, decided that enough is enough, that these letters are doing great harm to the very people they wanted to save and that now their own words in their own letters must be given the opposite meaning. He probably believed this would be a very authoritative statement. He only proved the conspiracy; the introduction letters confirming plagiarism are here (Doc. 30 and 33 ). Natural Sciences and marie de france Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) is essay introduction continuing fraud, outrage and research paper provocation. See the exchange of letters via email. Letter to the NSERC President Tom Brzustowski, February 26, 2003: Dear Dr. On Importance Of Education In Sanskrit? Brzustowski,

In your letter of February 24, 2003, you have admitted that you reviewed the file. You know that NSERC said: The Committee considered that Dr. Larsen behaved in a reasonable manner given your refusal to research, have the 1987 article published. You know that the Committee covered up the fraud, because: 1. Larsen herself withdrew this publication when I complained to the Department that it was my work and Principle not hers. 2. Larsen had admitted twice that 1987 article was my work. 3. Larsen not only paper, subsequently published this work under her own name, but she sent two other articles stealing my work before I refused to publish 1987 article. You are a well educated person, you know that two plus two can not equal one. When you see such fraudulent result, but you write: There is euthanasia for and no basis for any new action on marie de france research paper this matter by NSERC, you are continuing covering up the fraud.

You refer to the policies in israeli, effect at the time, but you know that there can not be any policy that allows covering up fraud. You must stop this fraud or resign. Yours, Michael Pyshnov. Ontario Government (Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities) refused to marie research paper, investigate fraud, lied about laws and procedures. Columbus Essay Contest? See the exchange of letters. ___________________________________________________________. Why my research is still not returned under my name? Why Larsen is still teaching students? All the laws that stood in her way in academia and in the criminal code were broken. Yet, she was and paper she is now absolutely certain about her total impunity. In her explanation to the Chair of the ways essay introduction Department (Doc. 25 ), she carelessly and sadistically celebrates the success of roguery and the demise of the de france research paper victim and makes an to write introduction exercise in openly fraudulent demagogy.

Her justifications are openly ridiculous; it is not possible that anyone could sincerely believe in her innocence. Her successful avoiding of prosecution continued on the scale of the state. Somehow, she had each and every official in her pocket. My complaints were met with conspiracy that by far surpassed what usually is meant by corruption. Below, are more details. Having a couple of hundred dollars and marie research paper without a lawyer, I went to of Impartiality, the court. The first judge, in 20 minutes that remained to the end of the paper day, made 12 mistakes (corrected later by the Court of Appeal where I, also, did not have a lawyer) and agreed with the University of Toronto that the court has no jurisdiction over dar christopher columbus essay what the University called academic matters.

The University lawyers not only dragged time (extending a 30-day limit for delivering Statement of research Defense to 17 months) but stated to on importance of education in sanskrit, the court that I should be panhandling to pay the court fees. Their friends in the Law Society had rejected my application for marie de france paper Legal Aid five times. 51 law firms in Toronto capable of research paper confronting the crime have declared conflict of research interest. Moreover, the University of Toronto made it completely impossible for columbus 2012 me to bring the matter to trial: defending Larsen, the de france research paper administration perverted and falsified the to write universally recognized academic rules and definitions, making the fraud not a fraud at all. At the same time, they sent a letter to every professor of the Department of Zoology and silenced the potential witnesses - their own professors, who have the authority to say in marie research, court what the real rules and definitions are. (The letter was sent on the next morning after I asked the faculty to give expert opinions on technology in education Larsen's plagiarized papers.) The new evidence that followed publication in paper, JustResponse, proved that even the two professors from another university (University of Guelph) who undertook to testify in court on my side were, in fact, working against me, which I had suspected then. To go to the trial, alone, I could not. The justice was subverted in too many ways. My repeated complaints to the Ontario Government (Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, formerly, Ministry of euthanasia against Education) to de france paper, which the University is accountable were met with refusal to follow the ways to write essay due process, misstating of the marie de france paper law and procedure and Principle of Impartiality even misstating of my complaint itself, and denial of jurisdiction.

My complaints were never answered in substance. Premier of Ontario, Mike Harris, had declared conflict of interest. My complaint to the Federal Office of Research Integrity at NSERC, indicating that it was a criminal matter and asking them to refer it to prosecution (which is research paper stated as a part of their procedure), was, incredibly, sent back to israeli palestinian paper, the University that was asked to conduct self-investigation. Then, the Committee of the de france paper Office of essay on importance in sanskrit Research Integrity approved the self-investigation, did not give me the marie de france paper report of the Committee and, practically, did not even try to euthanasia essay, hide that their investigation was just a farce. My recent attempt to talk to NSERC was again met with impossible lies. (See also above .) Criminal case impossible. The evidence thrown away: There is no doubt that the University of Toronto could not, legally, keep me as a Ph.D. student for five years and, having removed me, falsify the authorship of my research.

This is - criminal fraud. This University is marie de france research paper given the technology in education essay statutory power to grant degrees and granting a degree means recognition of academic achievement, recognition of marie research paper authorship. When the Principle of Impartiality University of Toronto had transferred my research under the authorship of marie de france other persons they committed both a criminal fraud and a fraud on the law in Ontario. However, both the police and Principle of Impartiality the Attorney General of Ontario simply refused to see my documents. I was told that to charge or not to marie de france research, charge is in education a matter in the police discretion. I talked to RCMP (fraud and corruption division) and gave them documents clearly proving that my research, experiments and ideas were stolen by marie research paper Larsen.

RCMP responded with the for and letter making a fraudulent blanket remark that it would be impossible to prove now whose ideas it were and marie de france research denying the RCMP jurisdiction, although it clearly had the technology in education essay jurisdiction as the evidence of de france paper fraud and concealment of fraud implicated both Ontario and Federal Governments. My letters sent to the Minister of research paper Justice of Canada and, then, to the Prime Minister of Canada were not answered. De France? For me, it was the end of the legal road. Social change - Untouchable criminals - Mandatory dishonesty You have falsified, perverted and destroyed the euthanasia for and against Law The University of Toronto and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada say that Professor Larsen did not steal my research, and that they made this conclusion in accordance with the de france existing rules, regulations, policy and procedure. But I am saying that the University and NSERC had a political directive to save Professor Larsen from jail. I am saying that the other governmental officials, law enforcement, unions, academic organizations and the media who all refused to react to my complaints were given the computer in education political directive to avoid the de france research matter at israeli any price. Ellen Larsen has always been presenting herself as an intelligent and idealistic Jewish scientist with a passion for social justice and harmony. In fact, she was always a fraud, a communistic slogan-weaver, full of envy and contempt for de france the doers, a parasite that should have never been allowed to come near a university. Here, a communist professor was a slave keeper.

And she, the female scientist, was a fraud. And she, the Jewish female, brought the holocaust upon a scientist. She committed crimes unprecedented in any university. But, can she be found guilty? And of such crimes? And of computer technology in education hatred and sadism? No, there is no political will for research this. Essay On Importance In Sanskrit? Ellen Larsen - the de france politically correct substitute of a professor, the sadistic criminal and the prostitute of science is still teaching students. The regime of change set up a network of offices and organizations to receive complaints and to screen them for for and essay political admissibility. There is no issue or a case left where politics is not put above the facts and above the marie research paper law. There is no such lie that can not be made into a justification for this.

The only euthanasia against, protest that is heard in Canada is the protest orchestrated by de france communist organizations. Jews, communists, lesbians, feminists and marihuana addicts, all, unfortunately for me, had a representation in the figure of Professor Larsen, and saw their special interest in saving her. They acted as a mob. The cunning professor-criminal used political corruption in this society to stay out of jail. The Graduate Students' Union had an unconditional obligation to defend my rights, but it is a communist organization that played political games with the public money, and, although they stated my case (Doc. 34 ), they in israeli paper, fact supported Larsen and the administration (see Protest on campus ). The University of Toronto Faculty Association that should have stripped Larsen of its membership, displays pictures of tortured female bodies and lesbians on research the walls. Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) is defending professors according to these categories: White women who are disadvantaged as White women with respect to White men, but advantaged as White women with respect to Black, Aboriginal, Asian and other racial minority men and women and for and gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgendered.

To me they said: we would like very much to paper, know the truth in this case. Then, they read the dar christopher essay documents, learned the truth in this case and said: After careful consideration, we have concluded that there is no role for the Academic Freedom and marie de france Tenure Committee. To Write Essay Introduction? (See Doc. 45 ) The President of the University of Toronto swore to fight historical injustice suffered by females and Jews and continued covering up the fraud. Taking away my right as a citizen to the protection of Law meant nothing. Taking away my right of authorship of my work (Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other treaties) meant nothing. Ontario Human Rights Commission could not care less, as I was not discriminated against. Jewish communist Alan Borovoy, the paper chief civil rights activist, said that his Association does not react to individual cases. (Yet, everybody sees him on television when an individual case appears.)

This mob actually enjoyed Larsen's fraud and did as much as they could for ways introduction her crime to continue. It would be very naive to think that anything described above can happen in a free country where the press can report the events and make public the contents of the documents. I have appealed to de france research paper, a hundred of journalists, all in computer technology essay, vain. Almost all the press and the television stations in Canada are owned by four Jewish families. They are responsible for establishing a communist totalitarian regime with impenetrable in a Soviet style mass media and the fear of political persecution. Even a courageous protest, a few years ago, by a number of journalists who complained about impossibility to write truth about marie de france paper, Israeli crimes in the whole chain of the main newspapers owned by Mr. Asper, did not result in any change. Some journalists were fired. My protest on the University campus continued almost every day from July to April. The banner Prof.

Larsen - liar and thief was seen and read from the other side of the dar christopher columbus contest 2012 street. There was no law suit for defamation. Nothing was reported in any media. Marie Research Paper? The main campus newspaper, Varsity, waited for a few months and computer technology in education essay after that, canceled its report, giving the ridiculous pretext of my anti-semitism although they knew of my Jewish origin. Had it published the report, there would be nothing in research, it except the ways essay introduction naked fraud proved with documents, but, it was the reporting of the fraud that was prohibited. There is de france no doubt that the University of Toronto, the governmental officials and the law enforcement were guaranteed the complete silence of the press. Bribes alone would not be enough. There is no stronger proof of the conspiracy than the total silence of the media.

For some years, the israeli reaction to my complaints was for me a maddening mystery. In five years at the University there was not a single instance of displeasure with me. I was also never close to politics. However, it is now more than clear that monstrous lying and the silence of the de france research press are politically motivated. I was made virtually an outlaw for whom the law is not even supposed to work, and many times I was made to of Impartiality, feel this. Some encounters are appearing in my memory again and again, but none of them I will ever forget. Read in the documents on marie de france research this web site (there are links on this page and on the other pages) the official justifications of the sadistic fraud that took away 25 years of my life, including the 5 years of slave labor. These justifications are no longer a mystery. Dar Christopher Columbus Essay Contest? This web site describes what happened when a Jewish communist female wanted authorship of scientific discoveries. More facts were posted on the Forum: Authorship Scam and The New Science Order. Prof.

John P. Lesko says on his web site : Rumours abound of graduate students in similar situations, although not quite as sensational as Pyshnov's case - their work having been appropriated by their mentors and supervisors, which the students only discover after it is too late to do much about it. Canadian academia operates as a criminal organization. For the de france research corrupt academia, Prof. V. Euthanasia For And Essay? Fabrikant case was not enough and, subsequently, my case was taken as the next opportunity to show its criminal power extending all the way to the Government. This is no longer tolerable. The exchange of paper letters with James L. Turk, The Executive Director of Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) ___________________________________________________________ This site started on February 6, 2001. (Ruthless Science Fraud at the University of ways to write essay Toronto was published before - on marie de france paper September 21, 1999.) I continued adding materials to the Main page.

I had to for and against essay, rewrite it several times, also, because it was difficult, especially under the stress and mental torture, to describe so much in so little space. The entire site is printable.

Write my essay -
The Lais Of Marie De France English Literature Essay - UK Essays

essay on leo tolstoy Fasting! And even an analysis of how to fast, and marie de france research where to begin! The notion seems ridiculous and wild to the majority of men. I remember how, with pride at israeli research paper, his originality, an Evangelical preacher, who was attacking monastic asceticism, once said to me Ours is not a Christianity of fasting and privations, but of beefsteaks. Christianity, or virtue in general?and beefsteaks! During a long period of darkness and lack of all guidance, Pagan or Christian, so many wild, immoral ideas have made their way into our life (especially into that lower region of the first steps toward a good life?our relation to food, to which no one paid any attention), that it is difficult for us even to understand the audacity and senselessness of upholding, in our days, Christianity or virtue with beefsteaks. We are not horrified by research this association, solely because a strange thing has befallen us. We look and see not: listen and hear not.

There is no bad odor, no sound, no monstrosity, to which man cannot become so accustomed that he ceases to remark what would strike a man unaccustomed to it. Precisely so it is in the moral region. Christianity and morality with beefsteaks! A few days ago I visited the slaughter house in of Impartiality, our town of Toula. Marie De France Paper! It is computer in education built on the new and improved system practised in large towns, with a view to causing the animals as little suffering as possible. It was on a Friday, two days before Trinity Sunday. There were many cattle there. [?] Long before this [?], I had wished to visit a slaughter house, in order to see with my own eyes the de france paper reality of the question raised when vegetarianism is discussed. But at euthanasia against, first I felt ashamed to do so, as one is always ashamed of going to look at suffering which one knows is about to take place, but which one cannot avert; and so I kept putting off my visit. But a little while ago I met on the road a butcher returning to marie de france paper Toula after a visit to his home.

He is not yet an dar christopher columbus essay contest 2012 experienced butcher, and his duty is to stab with a knife. I asked him whether he did not feel sorry for the animals that he killed. He gave me the usual answer: Why should I feel sorry? It is necessary. But when I told him that eating flesh is not necessary, but is marie de france only a luxury, he agreed; and then he admitted that he was sorry for the animals. But what can I do? I must earn my bread, he said. At first I was afraid to kill. My father, he never even killed a chicken in all his life. The majority of Russians cannot kill; they feel pity, and express the feeling by the word fear. This man had also been afraid, but he was so no longer.

He told me that most of the work was done on essay of education Fridays, when it continues until the evening. Not long ago I also had a talk with a retired soldier, a butcher, and he, too, was surprised at paper, my assertion that it was a pity to kill, and said the usual things about its being ordained; but afterwards he agreed with me: Especially when they are quiet, tame cattle. They come, poor things! trusting you. It is very pitiful. This is Principle of Impartiality dreadful! Not the suffering and death of the animals, but that man suppresses in himself, unnecessarily, the highest spiritual capacity?that of de france sympathy and pity toward living creatures like himself?and by violating his own feelings becomes cruel. And how deeply seated in the human heart is the euthanasia for and injunction not to take life! Once, when walking from Moscow, I was offered a lift by some carters who were going from Serpouhof to de france research a neighboring forest to fetch wood. It was the Thursday before Easter. Essay On Importance Of Education! I was seated in the first cart, with a strong, red, coarse carman, who evidently drank. On entering a village we saw a well-fed, naked, pink pig being dragged out of the first yard to paper be slaughtered.

It squealed in a dreadful voice, resembling the shriek of a man. Just as we were passing they began to contest kill it. Marie De France Research! A man gashed its throat with a knife. The pig squealed still more loudly and piercingly, broke away from the men, and ran off covered with blood. Contest 2012! Being near-sighted I did not see all the details. I saw only the human-looking pink body of the pig and marie research heard its desperate squeal; but the carter saw all the details and watched closely. They caught the ways essay introduction pig, knocked it down, and finished cutting its throat. When its squeals ceased the carter sighed heavily. Do men really not have to answer for such things? he said. So strong is man's aversion to all killing. But by marie research example, by encouraging greediness, by the assertion that God has allowed it, and, above all, by habit, people entirely lose this natural feeling.

On Friday I decided to to write essay introduction go to Toula, and, meeting a meek, kind acquaintance of mine, I invited him to accompany me. Yes, I have heard that the arrangements are good, and have been wishing to go and see it; but if they are slaughtering I will not go in. Why not? That's just what I want to see! If we eat flesh it must be killed. It is worth remarking that this man is marie research a sportsman and himself kills animals and birds. So we went to the slaughter house. Even at the entrance one noticed the heavy, disgusting, fetid smell, as of carpenter's glue, or paint on glue. The nearer we approached, the stronger became the smell. The building is of red brick, very large, with vaults and dar christopher columbus essay contest high chimneys.

We entered the gates. To the marie research paper right was a spacious enclosed yard, three-quarters of an acre in extent?twice a week cattle are driven in here for sale?and adjoining this enclosure was the contest 2012 porter's lodge. To the left were the chambers, as they are called?i.e., rooms with arched entrances, sloping asphalt floors, and contrivances for moving and hanging up the carcasses. De France Research Paper! On a bench against the wall of the porter's lodge were seated half a dozen butchers, in aprons covered with blood, their tucked-up sleeves disclosing their muscular arms also besmeared with blood. They had finished their work half an hour before, so that day we could only see the empty chambers. Though these chambers were open on both sides, there was an oppressive smell of warm blood; the essay floor was brown and research shining, with congealed black blood in the cavities. One of the butchers described thejirocess of slaughtering, and israeli showed us the place where it was done. I did not quite understand him, and formed a wrong, but very horrible, idea of the way the animals are slaughtered; and I fancied that, as is often the case, the reality would very likely produce upon me a weaker impression than the imagination.

But in this I was mistaken. The next time I visited the slaughter house I went in good time. It was the Friday before Trinity?a warm day in de france research, June. Dar Christopher! The smell of glue and blood was even stronger and more penetrating than on my first visit. Marie De France Research! The work was at Principle, its height. The duty yard was full of cattle, and animals had been driven into all the enclosures beside the chambers.

In the street, before the entrance, stood carts to which oxen, calves, and cows were tied. Other carts drawn by good horses and filled with live calves, whose heads hung down and swayed about, drew up and were unloaded; and marie de france similar carts containing the carcasses of oxen, with trembling legs sticking out, with heads and bright red lungs and brown livers, drove away from the slaughter house. The dealers themselves, in their long coats, with their whips and knouts in their hands, were walking about the yard, either marking with tar cattle belonging to israeli palestinian research the same owner, or bargaining, or else guiding oxen and bulls from the great yard into marie the enclosures which lead into the chambers. These men were evidently all preoccupied with money matters and of Impartiality calculations, and any thought as to whether it was right or wrong to kill these animals was as far from their minds as were questions about the marie research chemical composition of the blood that covered the floor of the chambers. No butchers were to be seen in the yard; they were all in of Impartiality, the chambers at work. Marie De France Paper! That day about in education essay a hundred head of cattle were slaughtered. I was on the point of entering one of the de france research chambers, but stopped short at the door.

I stopped both because the chamber was crowded with carcasses which were being moved about, and also because blood was flowing on the floor and dripping from above. All the butchers present were besmeared with blood, and had I entered I, too, should certainly have been covered with it. One suspended carcass was being taken down, another was being moved toward the essay on importance in sanskrit door, a third, a slaughtered ox, was lying with its white legs raised, while a butcher with strong hand was ripping up its tight-stretched hide. Through the marie paper door opposite the one at which I was standing, a big, red, well-fed ox was led in. Two men were dragging it, and hardly had it entered when I saw a butcher raise a knife above its neck and stab it. The ox, as if all four legs had suddenly given way, fell heavily upon its belly, immediately turned over on one side, and essay in sanskrit began to work its legs and all its hind-quarters. Another butcher at once threw himself upon the ox from the side opposite to the twitching legs, caught its horns and twisted its head down to de france paper the ground, while another butcher cut its throat with a knife.

From beneath the head there flowed a stream of blackish-red blood, which a besmeared boy caught in a tin basin. All the time this was going on the ox kept incessantly twitching its head as if trying to get up, and waved its four legs in the air. The basin was quickly filling, but the ox still lived, and, its stomach heaving heavily, both hind and fore legs worked so violently that the butchers held aloof. When one basin was full, the boy carried it away on his head to the albumen factory, while another boy placed a fresh basin, which also soon began to fill up. But still the ox heaved its body and worked its hind legs. When the Principle of Impartiality blood ceased to flow the butcher raised the animal's head and began to skin it.

The ox continued to writhe. The head, stripped of its skin, showed red with white veins, and marie de france paper kept the position given it by the butcher; on columbus both sides hung the skin. Still the paper animal did not cease to writhe. Than another butcher caught hold of one of the legs, broke it, and cut it off. In the remaining legs and the stomach the convulsions still continued. The other legs were cut off and thrown aside, together with those of euthanasia other oxen belonging to the same owner. Then the carcass was dragged to research paper the hoist and hung up, and the convulsions were over. Thus I looked on from the door at the second, third, fourth ox. It was the same with each: the same cutting off of the head with bitten tongue, and on importance the same convulsed members. The only marie de france paper difference was that the israeli paper butcher did not always strike at once so as to paper cause the israeli palestinian research paper animal's fall. Marie De France Research! Sometimes he missed his aim, whereupon the ox leaped up, bellowed, and, covered with blood, tried to to write introduction escape.

But then his head was pulled under a bar, struck a second time, and he fell. I afterwards entered by research paper the door at which the oxen were led in. Here I saw the same thing, only dar christopher essay 2012 nearer, and therefore more plainly. But chiefly I saw here, what I had not seen before, how the oxen were forced to marie enter this door. Each time an ox was seized in essay, the enclosure and de france research pulled forward by a rope tied to its horns, the animal, smelling blood, refused to advance, and of Impartiality sometimes bellowed and drew back. De France! It would have been beyond the strength of two men to drag it in by force, so one of the butchers went round each time, grasped the animal's tail and twisted it so violently that the gristle crackled, and the ox advanced. When they had finished with the cattle of one owner, they brought in those of of Impartiality another. Research Paper! The first animal of his next lot was not an ox, but a bull ?a fine, well-bred creature, black, with white spots on its legs, young, muscular, full of energy. He was dragged forward, but he lowered his head and resisted sturdily. Then the butcher who followed behind seized the tail, like an engine-driver grasping the handle of a whistle, twisted it, the gristle crackled, and the bull rushed forward, upsetting the men who held the essay of education rope.

Then it stopped, looking sideways with its black eyes, the whites of marie de france research paper which had filled with blood. But again the tail crackled, and the bull sprang forward and reached the required spot. The striker approached, took aim, and struck. But the blow missed the mark. The bull leaped up, shook his head, bellowed, and, covered with blood, broke free and rushed back. The men at the doorway all sprang aside: but the experienced butchers, with the on importance dash of research paper men inured to danger, quickly caught the rope; again the tail operation was repeated, and again the bull was in the chamber, where he was dragged under the bar, from which he did not again escape. The striker quickly took aim at the spot where the hair divides like a star, and, notwithstanding the blood, found it, struck, and the fine animal, full of life, collapsed, its head and legs writhing while it was bled and the head skinned. There, the cursed devil hasn't even fallen the right way! grumbled the butcher as he cut the skin from the head. Five minutes later the head was stuck up, red instead of black, without skin; the for and essay eyes, that had shone with such splendid color five minutes before, fixed and glassy.

Afterwards I went into the compartment where small animals are slaughtered?a very large chamber with asphalt floor, and tables with backs, on which sheep and calves are killed. Here the paper work was already finished; in the long room, impregnated with the smell of blood, were only two butchers. One was blowing into the leg of essay on importance a dead lamb and patting the swollen stomach with his hand; the other, a young fellow in an apron besmeared with blood, was smoking a bent cigarette. There was no one else in marie de france research, the long, dark chamber, filled with a heavy smell. Ways Essay Introduction! After me there entered a man, apparently an ex-soldier, bringing in a young yearling ram, black with a white mark on its neck, and its legs tied.

This animal he placed upon marie research paper, one of the tables, as if upon in education essay, a bed. Marie De France! The old soldier greeted the butchers, with whom he was evidently acquainted, and began to ask when their master allowed them leave. The fellow with the technology cigarette approached with a knife, sharpened it on marie de france research the edge of the table, and answered that they were free on holidays. The live ram was lying as quietly as the dead inflated one, except that it was briskly wagging its short little tail and its sides were heaving more quickly than usual. The soldier pressed down its uplifted head gently, without effort; the butcher, still continuing the Principle of Impartiality conversation, grasped with his left hand the head of the ram and cut its throat. The ram quivered, and paper the little tail stiffened and ceased to wave. The fellow, while waiting for the blood to flow, began to relight his cigarette, which had gone out. The blood flowed and the ram began to writhe. Ways Introduction! The conversation continued without the marie de france research paper slightest interruption. It was horribly revolting. [?]

[A]nd how about those hens and chickens which daily, in thousands of kitchens, with heads cut off and streaming with blood, comically, dreadfully, flop about, jerking their wings? And see, a kind, refined lady will devour the carcasses of these animals with full assurance that she is doing right, at the same time asserting two contradictory propositions: First, that she is, as her doctor assures her, so delicate that she cannot be sustained by vegetable food alone, and that for her feeble organism flesh is indispensable; and, secondly, that she is so sensitive that she is unable, not only herself to of Impartiality inflict suffering on animals, but even to bear the sight of de france research paper suffering. Whereas the poor lady is weak precisely because she has been taught to computer technology in education live upon food unnatural to man; and she cannot avoid causing suffering to animals?for she eats them. will inevitably follow one definite sequence, and in this sequence the first thing will be self-control in food?fasting. And in fasting, if he be really and seriously seeking to live a good life, the marie research paper first thing from which he will abstain will always be the essay on importance of education use of animal food, because, to marie de france research paper say nothing of the excitation of the passions caused by such food, its use is simply immoral, as it involves the performance of an act which is contrary to the moral feeling?killing; and is called forth only by columbus essay 2012 greediness and the desire for tasty food. [?] [W]e cannot pretend that we do not know this. De France Research! We are not ostriches, and cannot believe that if we refuse to look at what we do not wish to see, it will not exist. This is especially the euthanasia case when what we do not wish to marie de france research see is israeli research paper what we wish to eat.

If it were really indispensable, or, if not indispensable, at least in some way useful! But it is quite unnecessary, and marie only serves to develop animal feelings, to computer technology in education essay excite desire, and to promote fornication and drunkenness. And this is marie research continually being confirmed by the fact that young, kind, undepraved people?especially women and girls?without knowing how it logically follows, feel that virtue is Principle incompatible with beefsteaks, and, as soon as they wish to be good, give up eating flesh. What, then, do I wish to marie paper say? That in essay, order to research paper be moral people must cease to Principle eat meat?

Not at all. I only wish to say that for a good life a certain order of good actions is marie de france indispensable; that if a man's aspirations toward right living be serious they will inevitably follow one definite sequence; and that in this sequence the first virtue a man will strive after will be self-control, self-restraint. And in seeking for self-control a man will inevitably follow one definite sequence, and in this sequence the first thing will be self-control in ways essay introduction, food ?fasting. And in marie de france research paper, fasting, if he be really and seriously seeking to live a good life, the first thing from which he will abstain will always be the use of animal, food, because, to say nothing of the excitation of the computer technology passions caused by such food, its use is marie paper simply immoral, as it involves the performance of an act which is contrary to the moral feeling ?killing; and is called forth only by research greediness and marie the desire for ways to write essay introduction tasty food.