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Essay on poverty and education

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The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children

Business Plan: Express Bottle Maker, Gmbh. By: saptarshimitra1 • June 20, 2014 • Essay • 7,188 Words (29 Pages) • 318 Views. BUSINESS PLAN: Express Bottle Maker, GmbH. Table of Contents. 1. Executing Summary 4. 2. The Business 5. 2.1.

The Opportunity 5. Essay On Poverty And Education. 2.2. The Description of the Business 6. 2.3. A2 German Coursework. Competitive Advantage 7. 2.4. Current Status and and education Requirement 9. 3. Management Team 10. 3.1. Management Team 10. 3.2.

Board of Directors and bias consequence essay human reasoning Advisers 12. 3.3. Key Professional Services Providers 13. Essay. 4. Company Structure, Intellectual Property, and Ownership 13. 4.1. Organizational Structure 13. 4.2.

Legal Structure 15. 4.3. Intellectual Property 16. 5. Industry Analysis 16. 5.1. Borat Essay. Industry Description 16. 5.2. Target Market 20. 5.3. Competitive Position within Target Market 25.

6. Marketing Plan 25. 6.1. Product Feasibility and Strategy 25. 6.1.1. Essay On Poverty. Product Strategy 26. Should Have A Written Essay. 6.1.2. Concept Testing 26. 6.1.3. Usability Testing 26. 6.2. Essay On Poverty. Pricing Strategy 27. 6.3. Channels of Distribution 27. 6.4. Promotions and Advertising 28. 7. A2 German. Operational Plan 29. 7.1.

Method of Services Delivery 29. 7.2. Availability of essay, Qualified Labor Pool 30. 7.3. Business Partnership 30. 7.4. Borat Essay. Quality Control 31. 7.5. Customer Support 31. 8. Financial Plan 32. 8.1.

Capital Requirements for on poverty and education the Next Three to Five Years 32. 8.2. Overview of Financial Projection 33. 8.3. Income Statements 33. 8.4. Cash Flow Projections 33. 8.5. Balance Sheet 34. 8.6.

Payback and Exit Strategy 34. 9. Critical Risk Factors 35. 9.1. Management Risks 35. 9.2. Marketing Risks 35. 9.3. Operating Risks 36. 9.4. Financial Risks 36. 9.5.

Intellectual Property Infringement 36. 1. Executing Summary. With increasing complexity of essays esri, society, people tend to be more busing with their working life and hence, they are unable to devote sufficient time to their families and children. Besides, they also need to assure a healthy and secure life for their babies. In this situation, people have become highly depended on essay technology to save their time and energy with higher accuracy. Express Bottle Maker has realized this opportunity and hence, developed a machine for busing parents that prepares bottle milk for babies. The USP of this machine is that it prepares the bottle milk for babies eight times in a day by saving time and energy and by bias cause human psychology, offering milk without any kind of harmful micro-organism. The machine prepares milk with the optimum temperature for keeping the proteins and vitamins unaffected which cannot be maintain using the ‘time-taking' pre-mixed formula. The features of the newly invented product strives to create a competitive advantage as there is no direct competition in essay and education the market and Express Bottle Maker will manufacture the product with patent right.

The target market for the product includes the middle income and essays on geography esri wealthy people having more that ˆ2600 per week. The main focus will be on the working parents and single residing in the busy urban areas. The management team will consist of essay on poverty and education, three boards of directors and one chairman and adviser who will be shareholders. There are five major departments and there will be the head executives for each department. They will responsible for managing their areas and will directly report to the CEO. Should Have Constitution. The financial projection is based on the projected sales for the next three years i.e. 1000, 1300 and 1600 respectively. For the first 2 operating years, Express Bottle Maker will incur losses and during third year, it is expected to cross the on poverty breakeven point and will earn a profit of ˆ7,425.

The total startup for the business is around ˆ269,125 which will sued to acquiring assets and other operating and capital expenses. A2 German Coursework. In the first three operating years, the Express Bottle Maker aims to strengthen its financial position by increasing its assets and capacity and to cross the breakeven by increasing the sales. The two major exits strategy for investors are sold out the share to other investors and to obtain loan for on poverty and education repaying shareholders' equity. 2.1. The Opportunity. One of the primary and necessary virtues of entrepreneurs is the capability of identifying the have essay underlying opportunities and the capability of catering those opportunities by taking viable and profitable initiatives.

Sometimes, it is very difficult to realize the opportunities for essay any business, but innovative and creative entrepreneurs develop certain products or services of such utility that aims to create market demand. For example, the products likes tablet PC, iPod etc have created their demand and utility in the market. However, this business plan aims to cater the market by bias cause consequence essay in in psychology reasoning, offering an innovative product for the underlying opportunity. Essay On Poverty. Today, in post-modern organization, people have become too busy in their processional and working life to cope with the family responsibilities. Considering the present scenario, the entire society have become too competitive where people have to should have constitution essay manage their working and family responsibilities. Taking care of new born babies in a proper way is a challenging task as mothers have to be very careful in every step like proper food, hygiene, medical assistance etc. Besides, every task must be executed in proper time like feeding and any kind of delay or lack of accuracy in on poverty these tasks may create serious problem for the babies.

On the other hand, with increasing complexity of social life and business, people would like to take help of new technologies and machines that strive to make their life simpler and pre-dissertation fellowships fast with proper accuracy. 2.2. The Description of the Business. The product for this business plan is an automated machine that prepares milk for on poverty and education babies by pressing a single button. The machine strives to save time of the mother taking care of their child in better way by offering hygienic milk free of any kind of coursework, harmful micro-organisms. The machine will serve the number of mothers' intentions who want to feed their babies in timely with proper hygiene and nutrient. Basically, the middle income groups and on poverty wealthy families will accept the product for better caring of their babies. The machine will be manufactured by Express Bottle Maker, GmbH a new start up venture based in Germany. This newly startup company has no any significant history as the company is about start its business activities followed be a proper business plan. Express Bottle Maker is privately held company and will focus on Germany market for commercializing its newly invented machine. The primary objective of the Express Bottle Maker is to offer its useful product to its potential target market for making their life easier for them and better for their babies.

Therefore, in borat essay order to serve the market for long run, it is also very necessary to maintain its existence in the market for log run by taking sustainable business process. Hence, securing an essay on poverty, ample amount of profitability is fellowships, also another prime objective for the company. Besides, for specific aim and goal Express Bottle Maker has developed its sustainable mission statement. The mission of Express Bottle Maker is to offer better life for mothers and their babies by achieving the overall organizational growth simultaneously.

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The Effects Of Poverty On Education Education Essay - UK Essays

Estimation of true flow velocity using ultrasound. Matlab programming, digital signal processing. Knowledge of acoustics and ultrasound is also advantageous. Fusion of multi-modal cardiac data. Furthermore in the case of 3D echo the and education, image quality has large variations between subjects, the spatial resolution varies with depth and the tissue contrast is angle dependent. One possibility of improving image to noise ratio and to extend the field of view is to acquire multiple datasets from different angles, detect corresponding features in each view and fuse the recordings in coursework, order to essay and education generate a combined volume.

The aim of the project is to develop fusion and image registration techniques to combine multiple 3D cardiac acquisitions with the goal of improving signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution and bias cause consequence field of view or to improve the diagnostic process and to demonstrate their applicability during live scanning. Test/adapt state of the art image registration algorithms on ultrasound and CMR data ECG based temporal synchronization of data Comparison of various fusion algorithms vs the quality of the resulting image data. Knowledge of Python, Matlab and/or C++ programming Desire to learn parallel computing (CUDA or OpenCL) Pocket size Ultrasound technology. Pocket size Ultrasound technology.

1. Essay On Poverty? Automatic measurement of heart function - Implementation on Android smartphone. The motion of the AV-plane, i.e.. the plane between the left ventricle and left atrium, is page layout essay a sensitive marker for heart failure. An algorithm has been developed for automatic identification of the AV plane in the ultrasound image, using image processing tools, combined with a Doppler technique to measure the motion. Essay And Education? The task is to implement the algorithm on an Android smartphone, validate the method, and participate in clinical testing. A framework for receiving and displaying ultrasound data on a tablet device, implemented in C++, is available and borat essay can be used in this project.

Only limited knowledge of Java/Android is required as a template APK is also available. Knowledge of C++ programming, digital signal processing, image processing. 2. Augmented reality for cardiac and fetal applications. Currently ultrasound as an imaging modality is highly dependent on the experience of the examiner. During acquisition, in addition to the cognitive load associated with interpreting the image on the screen, the examiner has to control the correct positioning and orientation of the transducer in order to ensure that the correct anatomical area is imaged and that the image quality is satisfactory. By providing visual guidance through overlays, which communicate the anatomical structures being imaged, one can greatly improve the understanding of the structural arrangement of tissues during the essay, scanning procedure. Thus it is borat essay highly desirable to assist the ultrasound examiner and as such partially alleviate the burden of essay on poverty and education, image interpretation. The aim of the project is to on geography and gis develop 2D/3D visualization methods that enable the clinician to find a visual correspondence between the ultrasound data being acquired and a generic anatomical mesh-model of a human heart or a model of the fetus. Augmented reality based tool for cardiac/obstetric applications Model fitting to 3D volumes or freehand acquired 2D slices Robust detection of anatomic landmarks in ultrasound data (cardiac or obstetric) Training Android or iOS application to facilitate the learning process of students.

Knowledge of essay on poverty, Matlab and/or C++ programming Desire to learn Android programming. Pulse-echo based method for estimation of speed of sound. Pulse-echo based method for estimation of speed of the uk a written essay, sound. The calculation of speed of sound using pulse-echo techniques has been explored by various approaches. We have suggested a method using the recorded partial time delay between receivers to calculate the speed of sound of the on poverty, medium.

Compare the given method to other published methods for estimating speed of sound (litterature study) Implement the method in Matlab Evaluate the method using synthetic data Performing laboratory measurements Analyse the performance of the pre-dissertation, method. Matlab programming, digital signal processing. Knowledge of acoustics and ultrasound is on poverty also advantageous. Ultrasonic imaging through solids. Ultrasonic imaging through solids. One shall implement beamforming adapted for borat essay the above described situation and neccessarry image processing to essay and education investigate the achieved image quality. Keywords : Ultrasound imaging, wave propagation, beamforming, Matlab programming. SURF Imaging is a new method for ultrasound imaging under development at pre-dissertation, the Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging. The methods most important concept is to emit two ultrasound pulses at essay on poverty and education, the same time, one conventional high frequency imaging pulse and an additional low frequent manipulation pulse which modifies the propagation and scattering of the imaging pulse. SURF Imaging is a new method for ultrasound imaging under development at the Department of cause cognitive human psychology, Circulation and Medical Imaging.

The methods most important concept is to emit two ultrasound pulses at the same time, one conventional high frequency imaging pulse and an additional low frequent manipulation pulse which modifies the essay and education, propagation and scattering of the imaging pulse. This opens for exciting new imaging possibilities as f.ex. noise suppression for imaging of soft plaque (1st image), and enhanced contrast agent imaging for cancer detection (2nd image). Several topics are available, also in collaboration with departments in cybernetics, signal processing, computer science, acoustics, electronics, and mathematics at NTNU. Example topics are related to nonlinear ultrasound propagation and signal processing, mathematical topics on simulation of nonlinear wave propagation and scattering, GPU parallel programming for real time processing, and multiband transducer designs. Why does the manipulation pulse make a difference?

Both the essays and gis, scattering and the sound propagation speed is on poverty and education pressure dependent. Ihr Mellon Pre-dissertation Fellowships? So applying a manipulation pressure will alter these properties and on poverty an imaging pulse travelling in a compression phase of the essays and gis esri, manipulation wave will be slightly different from a pulse travelling in the rarefaction phase. This difference can be used to essay extract more information about the tissue and thus enables more advanced processing schemes. For more information on the method take a look at the SURF imaging page. A group of researchers works at cause cognitive consequence human in in psychology, the department with SURF imaging and we are looking forward to offer you a project or thesis in one of the most exciting fields of essay on poverty and education, medical ultrasound imaging! In general students will gain knowledge in the following areas: Wave propagation (Ultrasound theory) Programming (Matlab, C, C++, Python) Signal processing Medicine Literature study and writing of articles team work research and development. Below you'll find a list with available topics. They are all relevant both for master thesis as well as project work. The descriptions are kept quite general and since they anyway will be individually tailord to your interest f.ex. Cognitive Consequence Human In In Psychology Reasoning? a focus on lab-work, programming, simulations, theoretical and algorithm development . Please get in contact with the corresponding supervisors! They'll help you finding the perfect topic for and with you.

Topic: Improved detection of ultrasound contrast agents. The ultrasound echo from blood is very weak compared to the echoes generated by tissue. Essay On Poverty? In many situations it is desired to detect and image blood in the smallest blood vessels. To detect blood in these capillaries often an ultrasound contrast agent is injected into the blood circulation of a patient. These contrast agents are gas-bubbles with a typical diameter of 3µm which give en enhanced ultrasound echo and are transported with the blood. However it is still difficult to differentiate between tissue- and bubble-echo. This is especially important in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer where good imaging of the vessels and their structure is consequence essay human in in psychology curcial. SURF imaging is a promising method for imaging microbubbles especially in imaging situations where conventional methods fail.

The topic will contain optimalizing, testing and verification of the method and the algorithms behind. On Poverty? Main focus is on laboratory experiments (testing of the method), but also use of simulation tools and programming can be integrated. Keywords : Measurement methods, Signal processing, Programming, Wave propagation. Image quality in ultrasound is very patient dependent. One reason for this are multiple reflections between tissue structures or between tissue structures and the ultrasound transducer which cause ghost echoes - reverberations. In the best case reverberations become visible as a discernable distinct copy of a tissue structure in shallow depths but more often and more serious a haze of noise is spread over the image. This noise in the image causes problems in diagnosis in nearly all applications where ultrasound images are used for diagnostics.

The topic contains work on beamforming, simulations and borat essay phantom design (design test bodies) for better noise suppression. This comprises in on poverty and education, most cases work with software tools and can also comprise experimental work in the ultrasound lab. Topic: Estimation of non-linear scattering. Calcium particles are building up in the tissue in a number of medical conditions. Pre-dissertation Fellowships? In for example the diagnosis of breast cancer the physician is essay on poverty interested in calcium particles as they may indicate malignancy. Calcium is visualized very good in X-ray imaging, but not that good in page essay, ultrasound. Improved imaging of calcium particles would directly give better diagnostics and guidance of tissue biopsies. The topic contains experimental work in the lab, simulations, signal processing and estimation.

Keywords : Estimation theory, Cancer diagnosis, laboratory work, programming, signal processing, wave propagation. Topic: Transducer for SURF Imaging. To create the SURF two frequency pulse a new transducer has been developed. The transducer consist of a stack of at on poverty and education, least two piezoelectric layers, one for the low frequency pulse and one for essay the high frequency pulse, and layers inbetween the two for mechanical isolation and matching between the essay on poverty, two layers. A couple of prototypes transducer arrays have been manufactured, and ihr mellon pre-dissertation are succesfully used for imaging. However there are several issues to be investigated for the transducer design, amongst others; bandwidth of the passbands, internal reverberations, mechanical cross coupling, electrical matching to the scanner, non linear behaviour of the transducer. The investigations should be carried out as measurements studies and/or simulation studies.

The students have Bjorn Angelsen as their main or co-supervisor. Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery. Ultrasound has very interesting applications for increasing transport of drugs to cancer tumors and also transport of genes into cells in essay and education, gene therapy. The capillaries of aggressively growing tumors are leaky so that the and gis, pressure drop from the capillaries deep into the intertistium (space between cells) is very low. Transport of drugs from the capillaries to essay the cells is therefore mainly produced by diffusion, which is a slow process. Ultrasound radiation force has the same function as a pressure gradient and can therefore be used to increase transport of drugs from the capillaries to the cells. Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery. Ultrasound has very interesting applications for increasing transport of drugs to ihr mellon pre-dissertation fellowships cancer tumors and also transport of genes into cells in gene therapy. The capillaries of aggressively growing tumors are leaky so that the pressure drop from the capillaries deep into the intertistium (space between cells) is very low. Transport of drugs from the capillaries to the cells is therefore mainly produced by diffusion, which is a slow process. Ultrasound radiation force has the essay and education, same function as a pressure gradient and can therefore be used to bias cognitive consequence essay human in in psychology increase transport of drugs from the capillaries to the cells.

The leaky capillary walls opens for packaging the drugs into nanoparticles (diam. 100 nm) that leak out of the tumor capillaries, but not out of essay and education, normal capillaries, hence protecting normal tissue against the drug. The 1st Figure shows a micrograph of a capillary in red, with some nanoparticles in borat essay, blue, and and education free drug molecules that have entered into cells in green. The black areas are cells without drugs. We note that the nanoparticles are found close to the capillaries due to lack of pressure gradient.

Ultrasound radiation force is therefore very useful to improve the coursework, transport of particles and and education molecular drugs away from the capillaries, as illustrated in the 2nd Figure. Low frequency ultrasound together with microbubble contrast agent can also be used to improve transport of large molecular drugs, genes, and particles across cell membranes through a method called Sonoportation. This method can also be used to improve transport of drugs into brain tumors, that is hampered due to the blood brain barrier of the cerebral capillaries. Multifrequency ultrasound hence has many interesting applications in borat essay, cancer and gene therapy, presenting many interesting thesis topics within nonlinear ultrasound propagation and essay tissue interaction, design of high power multiband ultrasound transducer arrays. The work is done in on geography and gis esri, collaboration with professor Catharina Davies at Department of Physics, and also other groups in acoustics and mathematics at SINTEF and NTNU for essay simulation and design of fellowships, acoustic experiments in relation to drug delivery probelms. SINTEF Material Science and Medical Technology are also developing microbubbles with a shell of nanoparticles for improved drug and gene transport. There are several interesting Master and PhD topics in this field, ranging from. multi-frequency ultrasound acoustics and on poverty and education transducer arrays for layout for scholarship essay imaging of particles and stimulated transport and breakage of the particles signal processing for multi-frequency ultrasound imaging (SURF Imaging) of the particles combined optical imaging of particles with ultrasound mediated drug delivery experimental studies of ultrasound mediated transport and breakage of gas micro-bubbles and on poverty and education drug encapsulating nano-particles in lab models and small animal tumor models. Real-time monitoring of left ventricular function under interventional procedures.

Major cardiac interventions such as bypass surgery, vascular surgery and valve related interventions are known to page layout essay have a negative impact on heart function. As of today patient monitoring during the intervention is essay on poverty and education performed by a combination of vital signs monitoring (i.e. Should? blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation) and clinical observation by the anesthesiologist. Based on this information he is trying to detect changes in the function of the essay on poverty and education, heart, which is time consuming and inaccurate. Real-time monitoring of left ventricular function under interventional procedures. Major cardiac interventions such as bypass surgery, vascular surgery and valve related interventions are known to have a negative impact on heart function.

As of bias cause consequence human in in psychology, today patient monitoring during the intervention is performed by a combination of vital signs monitoring (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation) and clinical observation by the anesthesiologist. Based on this information he is trying to detect changes in the function of the and education, heart, which is time consuming and inaccurate. The aim of this project is to develop an algorithm capable of detecting changes in the function of the heart and specifically of the left ventricle, based on blood pressure, ECG measurements as well as echocardiographic parameters obtained during continuous automated monitoring, which are proven to correlate well with the bias cause cognitive in in, function of the heart. Extend existing data transfer and logging tools by adding support for the computation and tracking of parameters related to left ventricular function Identify which parameters are best suited for identifying early signs of changes in left ventricular function Develop machine learning based tools for automatic detection of functional changes Validate the methods on recorded patient data. Knowledge of Matlab or C++ programming. Fighting Cancer with CW Shear-Wave Elastography. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in essay, women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (second most common cancer overall). This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in women . Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control. The majority of deaths (269 000) occur in borat essay, low- and middle-income countries, where most women with breast cancer are diagnosed in late stages.

Fighting Cancer with CW Shear-Wave Elastography. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in essay on poverty, women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (second most common cancer overall). This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and and gis 25% of all cancers in women . Early detection remains the essay, cornerstone of breast cancer control. The majority of deaths (269 000) occur in a2 german, low- and middle-income countries, where most women with breast cancer are diagnosed in late stages. Ultrasound is used as the and education, first screening test for breast cancer. However, in early stages, tumorous masses are difficult to detect due to lack of borat essay, contrast. Ultrasonic elastography brings a new dimension into cancer detection by imaging the tissue stiffness rather than its reflectivity.

New techniques have been recently proposed using CW vibration fields. Here at ISB we are developing a technique that can potentially increase the essay on poverty, resolution and accuracy of stiffness maps. A2 German? We utilize high frequency acoustic fields (1 to 5 kHz) and essay on poverty a detection technique based on the k-space transform. Fig.1 shows a numerical simulation of the estimated shear-wave velocity map when an consequence human in in psychology, acoustic vibration field of 2500 Hz is used. We would like to develop this technique further by.

Developing a 2 kHz shear wave acoustic vibrator, and using 3D ultrasound to image the shear-wave vibration field. We look for someone that: likes experimental work and developing technology, would like to get hands on scientific procedures, and (may be) get her/his name on a paper. Background in signal processing or electronics is desirable. Adaptive clutter filtering for coronary heart disease. In coronary heart disease (CHD) plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries and blocks the supply of essay and education, oxygen to heart muscle. And if the supply of oxygen to the heart fails… yeah, that’s no good.

CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from bias essay, CVDs than from any other cause . An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths. Adaptive clutter filtering for coronary heart disease. In coronary heart disease (CHD) plaque builds up inside the essay on poverty and education, coronary arteries and blocks the supply of oxygen to heart muscle. And if the supply of oxygen to the heart fails… yeah, that’s no good. CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause . An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of on geography and gis, all global deaths.

Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by early detection and essay on poverty management using counselling and medicines, as appropriate. Recent research shows that early identification of ihr mellon pre-dissertation fellowships, asymptomatic individuals can reduce mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke by 50% . Ultrasound is the most widely used imaging modality to screen for on poverty and education CVD, since, contrary to MRI, it is cause cognitive reasoning a non-ionizing method. On Poverty? Ultrasound screening for bias cause cognitive consequence in in CVDs often involves the application of essay on poverty, Color Flow Imaging (CFI) a technique that makes it possible to visualize the blood stream velocity field. This is essays only possible thanks to process called clutter filtering which removes everything but the on poverty, signal reflected by the blood. Clutter filtering in the heart is a very challenging problem. The heart tissue moves with velocities which are similar to those of the cause cognitive essay in in psychology, blood. Consequently the clutter filter is not able to remove all the tissue in the image or, even worse, removes the signal reflected by the blood. Essay And Education? Here at ISB, we have envisioned a technique that can potentially improve the robustness of essays, conventional clutter filters.

The technique involves the estimation of the and education, tissue movement with a standard tissue doppler technique and then subtracting a deformed version of the image in have a written, time. Implement the technique and test its performance in essay, simulations and experiments. We look for someone that: likes signal processing and programing, would like to face a tough research problem, and is not easily demotivated.

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Essay: Poverty and Educational Achievement - Earlham Sociology

Where I Lived, and What I Lived For, by Henry David Thoreau. Revered by many readers as the father of American nature writing, Henry David Thoreau characterized himself as a mystic, a transcendentalist, and essay, a natural philosopher to boot. In addition, like his friend Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thoreau was an essayist and a poet. His one masterpiece, Walden (1854), came out of a two-year experiment in simple economy and creative leisure conducted in ihr mellon fellowships, a self-made cabin near Walden Pond in and education, Massachusetts. Before reading Where I Lived, and What I Lived For (the second half of page layout for scholarship essay, chapter two of Walden ), you might want to take a look at essay, Thoreau's short journal entry for page for scholarship essay July 6, 1845, Meeting the and education Vital Facts of Life. That entry served as the basis for this well-known passage. Where I Lived, and What I Lived For. From Chapter Two of Walden; or, Life in the Woods , by Henry David Thoreau.

1 I went to the woods because I wished to should the uk constitution essay live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of essay and education, life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practise resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world; or if it were sublime, to know it by should the uk experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion. For most men, it appears to me, are in a strange uncertainty about and education, it, whether it is of the cause cognitive in in psychology reasoning devil or of God, and have somewhat hastily concluded that it is the essay on poverty chief end of borat essay, man here to glorify God and and education, enjoy him forever. 2 Still we live meanly, like ants; though the fable tells us that we were long ago changed into men; like pygmies we fight with cranes; it is error upon error, and clout upon clout, and our best virtue has for its occasion a superfluous and ihr mellon, evitable wretchedness. Our life is essay frittered away by detail. Should A Written! An honest man has hardly need to essay on poverty count more than his ten fingers, or in extreme cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest.

Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand; instead of coursework, a million count half a dozen, and keep your accounts on your thumb nail. In the essay and education midst of cause cognitive consequence essay human reasoning, this chopping sea of civilized life, such are the on poverty and education clouds and storms and quicksands and thousand-and-one items to be allowed for, that a man has to live, if he would not founder and go to the bottom and not make his port at all, by dead reckoning, and he must be a great calculator indeed who succeeds. Simplify, simplify. Instead of three meals a day, if it be necessary eat but one; instead of a hundred dishes, five; and reduce other things in proportion. Our life is like a German Confederacy, made up of petty states, with its boundary forever fluctuating, so that even a German cannot tell you how it is bounded at any moment. The nation itself, with all its so-called internal improvements, which, by the way are all external and superficial, is just such an unwieldy and overgrown establishment, cluttered with furniture and tripped up by its own traps, ruined by luxury and heedless expense, by want of calculation and a worthy aim, as the million households in the land; and the only cure for ihr mellon fellowships it as for them is in essay on poverty and education, a rigid economy, a stern and more than Spartan simplicity of life and elevation of purpose. It lives too fast.

Men think that it is essential that the Nation have commerce, and human in in reasoning, export ice, and essay on poverty, talk through a telegraph, and ride thirty miles an hour, without a doubt, whether they do or not; but whether we should live like baboons or like men, is a little uncertain. If we do not get out essay, sleepers, and essay on poverty, forge rails, and ihr mellon pre-dissertation, devote days and nights to essay and education the work, but go to cognitive consequence human in in psychology tinkering upon our lives to improve them , who will build railroads? And if railroads are not built, how shall we get to on poverty heaven in page layout for scholarship essay, season? But if we stay at home and mind our business, who will want railroads? We do not ride on on poverty and education, the railroad; it rides upon us. Did you ever think what those sleepers are that underlie the railroad? Each one is a man, an and gis, Irishman, or a Yankee man. The rails are laid on them, and they are covered with sand, and the cars run smoothly over them. They are sound sleepers, I assure you. And every few years a new lot is laid down and run over; so that, if some have the pleasure of riding on a rail, others have the misfortune to essay be ridden upon. And when they run over a man that is walking in his sleep, a supernumerary sleeper in the wrong position, and wake him up, they suddenly stop the cars, and make a hue and coursework, cry about it, as if this were an exception.

I am glad to know that it takes a gang of men for and education every five miles to keep the sleepers down and level in their beds as it is, for fellowships this is a sign that they may sometime get up again. 3 Why should we live with such hurry and waste of life? We are determined to be starved before we are hungry. Men say that a stitch in time saves nine, and so they take a thousand stitches to-day to save nine to-morrow. As for work , we haven't any of any consequence.

We have the on poverty and education Saint Vitus' dance, and cannot possibly keep our heads still. If I should only give a few pulls at the parish bell-rope, as for a fire, that is, without setting the bell, there is hardly a man on borat essay, his farm in the outskirts of Concord, notwithstanding that press of engagements which was his excuse so many times this morning, nor a boy, nor a woman, I might almost say, but would forsake all and follow that sound, not mainly to on poverty and education save property from the flames, but, if we will confess the borat essay truth, much more to see it burn, since burn it must, and we, be it known, did not set it on fire,--or to see it put out, and have a hand in it, if that is done as handsomely; yes, even if it were the parish church itself. Hardly a man takes a half hour's nap after dinner, but when he wakes he holds up his head and asks, What's the on poverty and education news? as if the rest of mankind had stood his sentinels. Bias Consequence Human In In! Some give directions to be waked every half hour, doubtless for no other purpose; and then, to pay for it, they tell what they have dreamed. Essay And Education! After a night's sleep the constitution news is as indispensable as the breakfast. Pray tell me any thing new that has happened to essay on poverty and education a man any where on this globe,--and he reads it over his coffee and rolls, that a man has had his eyes gouged out this morning on the Wachito River; never dreaming the while that he lives in borat essay, the dark unfathomed mammoth cave of this world, and has but the rudiment of an eye himself. 4 For my part, I could easily do without the post-office.

I think that there are very few important communications made through it. Essay And Education! To speak critically, I never received more than one or two letters in my life--I wrote this some years ago--that were worth the postage. The penny-post is, commonly, an institution through which you seriously offer a man that penny for his thoughts which is and gis so often safely offered in essay and education, jest. And I am sure that I never read any memorable news in a newspaper. If we read of one man robbed, or murdered, or killed by accident, or one house burned, or one vessel wrecked, or one steamboat blown up, or one cow run over on should have essay, the Western Railroad, or one mad dog killed, or one lot of grasshoppers in the winter,--we never need read of another. One is enough. If you are acquainted with the principle, what do you care for a myriad instances and applications? To a philosopher all news , as it is called, is gossip, and they who edit and read it are old women over their tea.

Yet not a few are greedy after this gossip. There was such a rush, as I hear, the other day at one of the offices to learn the foreign news by the last arrival, that several large squares of plate glass belonging to the establishment were broken by essay and education the pressure,--news which I seriously think a ready wit might write a twelvemonth, or twelve years beforehand with sufficient accuracy. Coursework! As for Spain, for instance, if you know how to throw in Don Carlos and the Infanta, and Don Pedro and Seville and Granada, from time to time in on poverty, the right proportions,--they may have changed the names a little since I saw the papers,--and serve up a bull-fight when other entertainments fail, it will be true to the letter, and give us as good an idea of the exact state or ruin of things in Spain as the most succinct and lucid reports under this head in the newspapers: and as for England, almost the last significant scrap of human psychology reasoning, news from essay and education, that quarter was the fellowships revolution of 1649; and essay and education, if you have learned the history of her crops for an average year, you never need attend to essays and gis that thing again, unless your speculations are of a merely pecuniary character. If one may judge who rarely looks into the newspapers, nothing new does ever happen in foreign parts, a French revolution not excepted. 5 What news! how much more important to essay and education know what that is esri which was never old! Kieou-pe-yu (great dignitary of the state of Wei) sent a man to Khoung-tseu to know his news.

Khoung-tseu caused the messenger to be seated near him, and questioned him in these terms: What is your master doing? The messenger answered with respect: My master desires to diminish the number of his faults, but he cannot come to the end of them. The messenger being gone, the philosopher remarked: What a worthy messenger! What a worthy messenger! The preacher, instead of vexing the ears of drowsy farmers on essay and education, their day of rest at the end of the week,--for Sunday is the fit conclusion of an ill-spent week, and not the fresh and brave beginning of a new one,--with this one other draggle-tail of a sermon, should shout with thundering voice,--Pause! Avast! Why so seeming fast, but deadly slow?

6 Shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous. If men would steadily observe realities only, and not allow themselves to be deluded, life, to compare it with such things as we know, would be like a fairy tale and the Arabian Nights' Entertainments. If we respected only what is inevitable and a2 german coursework, has a right to be, music and poetry would resound along the streets. When we are unhurried and wise, we perceive that only great and worthy things have any permanent and absolute existence,--that petty fears and petty pleasures are but the shadow of the reality. And Education! This is always exhilarating and sublime. By closing the eyes and slumbering, and fellowships, consenting to be deceived by shows, men establish and confirm their daily life of routine and habit every where, which still is built on purely illusory foundations. Children, who play life, discern its true law and relations more clearly than men, who fail to live it worthily, but who think that they are wiser by experience, that is, by failure. I have read in a Hindoo book, that there was a king's son, who, being expelled in essay on poverty, infancy from his native city, was brought up by the uk a written essay a forester, and, growing up to essay and education maturity in page layout for scholarship, that state, imagined himself to belong to the barbarous race with which he lived. One of his father's ministers having discovered him, revealed to him what he was, and essay, the misconception of page essay, his character was removed, and he knew himself to be a prince.

So soul, continues the and education Hindoo philosopher, from the circumstances in which it is placed, mistakes its own character, until the truth is revealed to it by some holy teacher, and then it knows itself to have a written essay be Brahme . I perceive that we inhabitants of New England live this mean life that we do because our vision does not penetrate the surface of things. We think that that is which appears to be. If a man should walk through this town and see only the essay reality, where, think you, would the Mill-dam go to? If he should give us an account of the realities he beheld there, we should not recognize the place in his description. Look at borat essay, a meeting-house, or a courthouse, or a jail, or a shop, or a dwelling-house, and say what that thing really is before a true gaze, and they would all go to pieces in your account of them. Essay On Poverty And Education! Men esteem truth remote, in the outskirts of the system, behind the farthest star, before Adam and after the last man. In eternity there is indeed something true and sublime. But all these times and places and occasions are now and here. God himself culminates in a2 german coursework, the present moment, and will never be more divine in the lapse of all the ages. And we are enabled to on poverty and education apprehend at all what is sublime and essays on geography esri, noble only by the perpetual instilling and drenching of the reality which surrounds us. The universe constantly and essay on poverty and education, obediently answers to our conceptions; whether we travel fast or slow, the essays on geography and gis esri track is laid for us.

Let us spend our lives in conceiving then. The poet or the essay on poverty and education artist never yet had so fair and noble a design but some of ihr mellon pre-dissertation, his posterity at least could accomplish it. 7 Let us spend one day as deliberately as Nature, and not be thrown off the essay on poverty track by every nutshell and mosquito's wing that falls on the rails. Let us rise early and fast, or break fast, gently and a2 german, without perturbation; let company come and on poverty, let company go, let the bells ring and a2 german, the children cry,--determined to make a day of it. And Education! Why should we knock under and pre-dissertation, go with the stream? Let us not be upset and essay and education, overwhelmed in that terrible rapid and essay, whirlpool called a dinner, situated in the meridian shallows. Weather this danger and you are safe, for the rest of the way is down hill. With unrelaxed nerves, with morning vigor, sail by it, looking another way, tied to the mast like Ulysses. If the engine whistles, let it whistle till it is hoarse for its pains. If the bell rings, why should we run? We will consider what kind of on poverty and education, music they are like.

Let us settle ourselves, and coursework, work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and on poverty and education, appearance, that alluvion which covers the globe, through Paris and London, through New York and Boston and Concord, through church and coursework, state, through poetry and philosophy and religion, till we come to a hard bottom and rocks in place, which we can call reality , and say, This is, and no mistake; and then begin, having a point d'appui , below freshet and on poverty and education, frost and borat essay, fire, a place where you might found a wall or a state, or set a lamp-post safely, or perhaps a gauge, not a Nilometer, but a Realometer, that future ages might know how deep a freshet of shams and appearances had gathered from time to time. If you stand right fronting and face to face to a fact, you will see the on poverty and education sun glimmer on both its surfaces, as if it were a cimeter, and feel its sweet edge dividing you through the heart and a2 german coursework, marrow, and so you will happily conclude your mortal career. Be it life or death, we crave only reality. If we are really dying, let us hear the rattle in our throats and feel cold in the extremities; if we are alive, let us go about our business. 8 Time is but the stream I go a-fishing in. I drink at it; but while I drink I see the sandy bottom and detect how shallow it is.

Its thin current slides away, but eternity remains. I would drink deeper; fish in the sky, whose bottom is pebbly with stars. I cannot count one. I know not the first letter of the alphabet. I have always been regretting that I was not as wise as the day I was born.

The intellect is a cleaver; it discerns and on poverty and education, rifts its way into the secret of things. I do not wish to be any more busy with my hands than is coursework necessary. My head is hands and feet. On Poverty! I feel all my best faculties concentrated in it. My instinct tells me that my head is an organ for essays on geography burrowing, as some creatures use their snout and fore-paws, and with it I would mine and burrow my way through these hills.

I think that the richest vein is somewhere hereabouts; so by the divining rod and thin rising vapors I judge; and here I will begin to mine.

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The Effects of Poverty on Education Essay - 1157 Words | Bartleby

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Poverty and the effects of Formal Education - UK Essays

Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. I One of the dilemmas of public art has been the essay on poverty and education difficulty in offering any clear or shared definition. We might say simply that it is art that happens outside of the borat essay gallery or museum, but implicit in this definition is the essay on poverty assumption that public art exists outside the mainstream of contemporary arts practice, or at least is secondary to what goes on in the main spaces and, as such, it has lacked a certain credibility as a fine art discipline. The lack of a clear definition is perhaps one of the borat essay greatest obstacles for public art and yet, as Cameron Cartier points out a clear definition is elusive because public art is simply difficult to define. 1 Part of what makes public art practice so difficult to define is that it encompasses a vast umbrella of essay practices and forms: from permanent sculptures to temporary artworks; political activism; socially-engaged practices; monuments; memorials; community-based projects; off-site museum and gallery programmes; earthworks and land art; site-specific work; street furniture, urban design, and should a written, architectural decoration have all been classified under public art. Some argue that categorising public art is misleading – public art is on poverty, just art.

Certainly we see more and more how the distinction between an artist's studio practice and bias cause cognitive essay in in reasoning, one that is publically motivated (i.e. political, social, situational, or relational) has blurred and there is considerable fluidity in how an essay on poverty and education, artist's work resonates within the gallery, art fair, biennial and public project contexts. On Geography And Gis Esri! (Think, for example, of Martin Creed's Work No. 850, 2008, with athletes timed to run as fast as they can, one at essay and education a time through the Duveen Hall, Tate Britain; or Francis Als' When Faith Moves Mountains, 2002 – a performative work in Lima Peru, involving 500 volunteers who with shovels moved a sand dune a few inches – land art for the landless.) What we consider today as public art has been around since the layout essay beginnings of art – the Paleolithic cave paintings, such as those at Lascaux, France (no longer accessible to the public) or the frescoes and religious art from the medieval era that spoke to essay, a 'community of interest' about hell, salvation and the divinity of God; or the tradition of monuments and memorials increasingly evident in cities and towns since the eighteenth and cause cognitive consequence essay in in psychology, nineteenth centuries amplifying battle and death and noble heroes. Yet the term Public Art is essay on poverty, relatively new. It was coined in the late 1960s in the USA and UK and associated with government Per Cent for Art programmes (introduced in Ireland in 1987), which provide funds for a public artwork linked to essays, capital development – urban regeneration, new roads, social housing, public buildings – and until the essay last decade involved the commissioning of mostly permanent, site-specific sculpture. Around the layout for scholarship essay same time – the late 1960s and '70s – vangardist artists in the USA, such as Robert Smithson, Richard Serra, Christo, Mary Miss, Nancy Holt, Walter de Maria and essay, Bruce Nauman, consciously broke from the essays and gis esri constraints of the gallery and began producing interventions into the landscape and architecture.

The art they made – termed invariably site-specific, earthworks, land art or environmental art – was inseparable from their (non-art) surroundings, creating a very different kind of viewing experience. Walter de Maria's Lightening Field, 1977, for example, is conceived to be experienced over essay on poverty and education an extended period of time and involves an overnight stay at the remote site in Western New Mexico. Art historian Rosalind Krauss, keen to essays on geography, map this rupture with high modernism's formalism, recognised the need for a new terminology for sculpture that had moved off the pedestal, into the gallery and out into essay on poverty the environment, titling her influential essay 'Sculpture in the Expanded Field'. In this essay she draws on the Klein technique to articulate new boundaries of aesthetics that move towards the limits of bias cause cognitive consequence reasoning postmodernism's formlessness. 2 This 'loosening out' of essay art's limits has, since the 1970s, generated new categories of (public) art that operate within ever expanding and interdisciplinary fields. Spiral Jetty by Robert Smithson, constructed in 1970, is perhaps the best known of these land works and has taken on a mythic status due to its disappearance a few years after it was built, submerging under high level lake water, only to re-emerge in the droughts of 2004. It is ihr mellon pre-dissertation, a massive spiral earthwork at Rozel Point in Utah, USA, that curves its way out into the lake; a great swirl of basalt and essay on poverty, soil that redefines the landscape it inhabits with its juxtaposition of borat essay industrialism and beauty, decay and rebirth, rot and permanence. It was, writes Lynne Cooke, curator of the Dia Art Foundation, New York, the sense of ruined and abandoned hopes that interested [Smithson]. On Poverty! 3 He was concerned with 'entropy' or energy drain (the reverse of evolution) and saw the future, like Vladimir Nabokov, as obsolete in reserve. Jane Rendell suggests that the a2 german coursework distance (and remoteness) we have from many of these earthworks today, such as Spiral Jetty, allows them to resonate in more speculative ways and they take on and education, a sort of heroic quality or site of have a written constitution pilgrimage, as suggested in Tacita Dean's journey to essay on poverty and education, find the jetty recorded in her 1997 work Trying to pre-dissertation fellowships, find the Spiral Jetty. 4 The British artist Robert Long's strategies for art made by on poverty and education, walking in the landscape operate in should the uk a written a similar vein of remoteness and pilgrimage, going out into the 'middle of essay on poverty nowhere'.

His works are concerned with the relationship between time, distance, geography and measurement, and so walking as a form has enabled him to essays on geography and gis, explore these ideas, while simultaneously extending the boundaries of sculpture – walking becomes art. (Walking is a practice, which other artists such as Francis Als use, but for Als it is principally the city that is essay and education, his site, studio and readymade.) Questions of monumentality and transience are present in coursework Long's work: stones are used as markers of time or distance, or exist as parts of huge, anonymous sculptures in remote landscapes and his walks are exhibited afterwards in galleries through maps, photographs, texts and floor sculptures. Long's work in IMMA's collection, Kilkenny Landscape Circle, 1991, is a stone circle, an artwork that we might feel resembles the ancient field monuments. Long writes, I consider my landscape sculptures inhabit the rich territory between two ideological positions, namely that of making 'monuments' or conversely, of essay on poverty 'leaving only footprints'. 5. Questions of permanence and ephemerality are major themes in public art, and essays on geography and gis esri, histories and memories find expression in on poverty the built environment – but whose history and a2 german, whose memories are recorded and can the monument always maintain its original meaning and essay, purpose?

There is nothing in this world as invisible as a monument writes Austrian historian Robert Musil. 6 How many, for example, would instantly recognise the four angels at the foot of John Henry Foley's Daniel O'Connell Monument, 1882, at the riverside of Dublin's O'Connell Street, as representing the four provinces of ihr mellon fellowships Ireland? While historic, artistic and and education, literary figures, and famous dead pop stars, sports people and popular local heroes find their way onto our streets and squares, to sit alongside the dead heroes and triumphal arches and public sculptures, they usually take on traditional – generic and heroic – aspects of bias cause consequence in in psychology reasoning monumentality. But many contemporary artists have found other ways of remembering, both using and subverting the monument as a means in which to readdress everyday and political issues or to disrupt a sense of familiarity, as Rachel Whiteread achieved in her 1993 work House, by casting in concrete a soon-to-be-demolished house in East London, turning inside space out. And, John Byrne's Misneach (Courage), 2010, situated in Ballymun, Dublin – an equestrian statue of a girl on a horse – which shows how an everyday person (a young local girl) can be as much a hero as the on poverty celebrated public figure.

The meaning these public artworks will have for a particular public and how the borat essay public experiences the work becomes a central concern of the artist. Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial, 1982, in Washington, is the opposite of the traditional overpowering monument – authoritarian, vertical, phallic. It succeeds, as Tom Finkelpearl suggests, in being both abstract and personal – it does not include an image of the dead, but instead names them (naming has been used in many other memorials since, such as the AIDS Memorial Quilt begun in California in essay on poverty 1987 and which still continues today, now the biggest community arts project in the world). The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is anti-monumental, anti-heroic, intimate. Bias Cause Cognitive Reasoning! It includes the viewer as participant in the work in a very physical way.

It is, says Lin, made for essay on poverty a one-to-one experience.7 Conversely, Christo and a2 german, Jeanne- Claude's 'Wrappings', such as Running Fence, California, 1973, or Wrapped Coast, Little Bay, Australia, 1969, (made with the on poverty aid of 130 workers who devoted 17,000 work hours) might also be considered as monuments. The 'Wrappings' offer new ways of seeing the ihr mellon familiar, but only for and education a short time (like an event), giving them an almost legendary character. Visually impressive and monumental in ambition, scale and execution they perform as spectacles. Nearly five million people saw the Wrapped Reichstag in Berlin, in 1995. But most of us will only know the cause cognitive essay psychology works through photographs and recorded documents. And Education! Similarly, Dorothy Cross' Ghost Ship, 1999 – a NISSAN/IMMA award – operated like a public spectacle, but not in a way that 'overwhelmed' the public, it was more subtle, poetic. Conceived as a homage to ihr mellon pre-dissertation fellowships, the lightships around the coast of essay and education Ireland, which were being decommissioned in favour of automation, Cross' decommissioned lightship (a found object), was painted in phosphorous paint and with a UV light timed to essays and gis esri, fade and glow; the obsolete vessel made visible at on poverty and education night in repetitive sequences of appearance and disappearance. Moored off Scotsman's Bay, Dun Laoghaire for three weeks, it demonstrated, like Christo's 'Wrappings', how the impact of temporary public artworks can powerfully resonate long after the work is complete.

The focus on everyday life, 'ordinary people' and ordinary things and the influences of popular culture on 'high art' originating in historical avant-garde strategies to bring art and life closer, are all evident in the work of German artist Stephan Balkenhol. Large Head, 1991, is an everyman (an individual). It sits on a simple table – carved, craggy and cracked. Ordinary rather than idealised, and anonymous rather than heroic, his works represent the familiar strangers that occupy our everyday lives. Julian Opie's life-size walking figures (Sara, Jack, Julian and Suzanne), displayed on a2 german, the central mall of on poverty and education O'Connell Street, Dublin, walking in the direction of the bias cause cognitive human psychology reasoning Hugh Lane Gallery, and mounted on LED screens, use sophisticated computer technology to on poverty, represent real people as simple outline reductions. They were commissioned by the Hugh Lane Gallery who have successfully used O'Connell Street as a very public platform to connect people to the gallery by using public art that is both immediate (accessible) and 'sophisticated'. Barry Flanagan's exhibition of giant bronze hares, for example, was also displayed here. These public works displayed as exhibitions, which are generally for several months, build impact over time, but unlike permanent works seem somehow less threatening for a2 german the public and give greater scope for risk taking and experimentation. The successful 'Fourth Plinth' in London makes a space amongst the monuments of Trafalgar Square for temporary public artworks by essay on poverty, high profile artists that capture a large audience and include the essay people's voice as part of the selection process, through comments on a website. The range of work seen and essay on poverty, experienced here is considerable – think, for example, of Mark Quinn's Alison Lapper Pregnant, 2004, a sublime work in white marble of the disabled artist when she was eight months pregnant, or of Antony Gormley's One and should the uk have a written constitution, Other, 2009, a participatory democratic work that gave 2,400 people the chance to spend an essay and education, hour alone on the Trafalgar Square plinth (many used the essay occasion to hold up banners supporting charities or protesting). II If defining Public Art is testing, it might nonetheless be helpful to suggest a few things central to the way a public artwork is and education, likely to be considered today.

Firstly, the majority of borat essay public artworks result from a public commission often requiring a competitive process, long-term planning, consultation and approval (that said, increasingly public art projects are artist-led, or involve a direct invitation by public art agencies that promote more avant-gardist approaches, such as Artangel, UK or Creative Time, USA). Secondly, there is an emphasis on the public and audience and the relationship the artwork will have with, and for, the people for whom it is made. Thirdly, the situation – to create artworks in 'real' or virtual places (outside of designated art spaces) – makes context a vital element in essay how the artwork is conceived, created, located, understood and even authored. It is within this triangulation of the artist, the page layout situation (context, place, site, and on poverty, commissioning body), and public (audience, participant, collaborators, people) that the public artwork gets made, and we might add negotiated, diluted, compromised, and bias cognitive essay psychology, received. The tendencies for many commissioned artworks, such as those funded under the Per Cent for on poverty and education Art scheme has been to promote the 'usefulness' of art – be that to fill the 'social bond', create visual coherence of layout essay a city or transform the image of a public body. How successful art can be in performing these functions is wide open to debate. Essay On Poverty And Education! An advocacy of the non-contentious and the universal benefits of the art commissioned for the general public or promoting coherency of the public sphere, has resulted in the blandness of many public artworks we see in borat essay towns, along motorways and in front of corporate buildings. The emphasis on socially-engaged processes and participatory practices is essay, widely embraced as a means of broadening access to the arts through greater social inclusiveness. However, as Claire Bishop points out, governments often compensate for social exclusion through socially inclusive strategies, meanwhile the structural inequalities of essays and gis esri society remain uninterrogated. 8.

How the public will receive the artwork that they might feel is 'foisted' upon them is essay and education, indeterminable. Still Falling, 1991, a work in IMMA's collection by Antony Gormley, whose figurative sculpture is generally made from casts of his own body, attempts to treat the body not as an object but as a place. Gormley has made some of the best known public artworks and has been invited as a high-profile artist to make work in many cities across the world and also at remote sites – on top of skyscrapers, in the sea and on mountain ranges. His most famous work is the iconic Angel of the North, 1995, which won the hearts of local people only after the replica Alan Shearer shirt was thrown over it by a Newcastle supporter. But not all his works have received the same positive response. For example, his three cruciform cast iron men made for a2 german Derry City were attacked and graffittied. Malcolm Miles, writing about essay on poverty and education this commission, asks how can the metaphor Gormley set up, to put his body between the bias cognitive in in two sides to essay on poverty, create a poultice to a2 german, draw the poison from the essay wounds of page layout for scholarship Derry, carry the burden of these referenced histories? 9. It was Richard Serra's Tilted Arc, 1981, which arguably presented the and education single most divisive moment in the history of public art. Should A Written Constitution Essay! Commissioned for Federal Plaza, New York, the essay and education giant Corten steel sculpture was conceived to bias cause essay human psychology, work in opposition to the context – Serra was not interested in art as an affirmation or complicity and disdained the need for art to essay on poverty and education, please its audience. Cognitive! 10 The sculpture drew a negative response from the workers, fuelled, many have said, by two judges which eventually led to and education, a court case and the removal of Tilted Arc.

What the borat essay art world saw as a great avant-garde masterpiece was, for the people who worked beside it, enormous and threatening. 11 Tilted Arc is a fascinating case study, with the ripple effect of asking how a public artwork is to (or should) engage its public? The critique of 'heavy metal' public sculptures and the removal of Tilted Arc marked, as Miwon Kwon comments, the transition to more discursive models of public art – the shift in which 'site' is displaced by notions of 'audience', a particular social 'issue' and most commonly a 'community' and dialogue, becomes a central ingredient in the work. On Poverty! 12 Suzanne Lacy termed this New Genre Public Art, in 1995, where she distinguished a new form of public art practice that is ihr mellon fellowships, not about the object but is based on the relationship between the on poverty and education space and the audience. She was influenced by Lucy Lippard's Six Years: The Dematerialization of the page layout essay Art Object from 1966 to 1972, which focused on ideas, gestures and on poverty, processes (labelled conceptual art). Lawrence Weiner's Water Sand + Sticks and Stones, 1991, at the entrance to IMMA, is a conceptual work that sees language as sculpture, where an ambiguity lies between the artwork as gesture and the statement describing the borat essay gesture.

The desire for a more compassionate identity and on poverty, deeper engagement with people also found expression in the writing of Grant Kester, whose dialogical aesthetic draws on layout, the philosophies of Jrgen Habermas and Jean- Franois Lyotard, to present a very different image of the artist, one defined in terms of on poverty and education open-ness, of listening and a willingness to borat essay, accept dependence and intersubjective vulnerability. Essay! 13 Nicolas Bourriaud's Relational Aesthetics, written in 1998, drew attention to contemporary arts practice that took its point of departure from the whole of human relations and their social contexts. Such highly influential texts encourage more socially conscious approaches to arts practice, where artists work closely with people or in collaboration with people, often embedding themselves within the context where they work. Mierle Laderman Ukeles' Touch Sanitation, 1978-1993, is an early example of ihr mellon pre-dissertation fellowships New Genre Public Art where, through a self-initiated residency in essay on poverty the New York sanitation department, she began her work by ihr mellon pre-dissertation, shaking hands with the 8,500 sanitation workers – from street sweepers to and education, managers. Essays On Geography And Gis! The handshake was the start of the 'getting to know' and, with each gesture she would express her thanks for keeping New York City alive. Rick Lowe's Project Row Houses in Houston, Texas, 1994 – a major self-initiated project involving considerable negotiation in essay on poverty and education the renovation of a row of vernacular shotgun houses to transform them into homes for single mothers as well as project spaces for African American artists (of whom he was one) – came from the artist's desire not only to put the work in the community, but also to become part of the community. 14 What's the Story Collective – an ongoing project set up in 2008, led by artist Fiona Whelan – builds a dialogical practice based on a set of horizontal working relationships with the young people of Rialto Youth Project, Dublin. Investigating power relationships, the project built on the gathering and sharing of personal stories through different forms, including intimate readings with invited audiences.

The main focus has been on the young people's sense of powerlessness with the Garda, who have in and gis turn been included in the process, which is to inform a ground-breaking new training scheme for the Garda, based on the content of findings. Essay On Poverty! The art made is primarily performative, where the and gis esri subject is about real people living in real situations. The level of personal commitment given by essay on poverty, such artists to page layout for scholarship essay, these particular situations stems from a desire to make a difference (to offer the promise of a better world) and on poverty and education, their practices, politically motivated, often offer new aesthetic forms that represent a counter-argument to borat essay, more bureaucratic programmes of social inclusion. Nevertheless, a challenge for and education much socially-engaged public art practice is how to fellowships, critique and evaluate it as art. The emphasis on empathy and and education, ethics places less value on the aesthetic and political impact, crucial, as Claire Bishop argues, to critically discussing and analysing the work as art.

She seeks shock, discomfort, or frustration – along with absurdity, eccentricity, doubt or sheer pleasure, as crucial to borat essay, a work's aesthetic and political impact. 15 Bishop cites Jeremy Dellar's Battle of Orgreave, 2002, as an exemplary work that deals with an industrial dispute (the 1984 miner's strike), but in a way that mixes the political narrative with eccentric middle class weekend leisure (the historical re-enactment societies). For Bishop, Dellar's work dismantled any form of sentimentality of class unity and essay and education, suggests that the whole event could be understood as contemporary history painting, one in which representation is collapsed with real-time re-enactment. Seamus Nolan's Hotel Ballymun, 2007, commissioned by the forward-thinking Breaking Ground Per Cent for Art Programme 2002-2010, presents a particularly special and distinctive project. Nolan organised the process around a collaborative relationship with local people helping him to design and build a fantasy space, through salvaging and reimaging objects, furniture and items from the flats, to create a real hotel, on top of a soon-to-be-demolished tower block. The hotel was a functioning micro-society with bedrooms, a gallery, music venue, conference centre and borat essay, garden. The surreal and utopian experience (people could stay the night) became a springboard, as Mark Garry writes, for contentious opinions that slipped into negative clichs about the practice of socially-engaged art in working class areas. 16 But in this way, this extraordinary work offered what Garry suggests, a mechanism to on poverty and education, question the position contemporary art holds within the capitalist model, encouraging a possible rethinking of the should the uk have a written essay possible social function of art. 17. The influence of spatial theory, such as the writings of Henri Lefebvre (The Production of Space), Michel de Certeau (The Practice of Everyday Life) and Doreen Massey, who argue for a more nuanced and complex understanding of place as unfixed, contested and on poverty and education, multiple, is reflected also in the writings of Simon Sheikh, who speaks of the fragmentation of the public sphere, which we do not enter into equally as a common shared space. And just as there is no unified public sphere, there is, he argues, no idealised or generalised public.

The meaning of a public artwork will shift in relation to space, contexts and publics (an individual spectator brings his unique experiences – inclusive of age, class, gender, background – to the particular situation or art experience). Such a shift in understanding, according to Sheikh, suggests a different notion of communicative possibilities and methods for the artwork, that take their point of departure from different fields or disciplines, or a specific rather than general public, or a particular context or site. Ihr Mellon Pre-dissertation! 18. On the essay and education Irish public art website – – there are numerous examples that demonstrate the many directions (and forms) that public art is taking in borat essay Ireland and internationally. The possibilities within this relatively young movement to present unique opportunities to explore the multifold realities of the contemporary world, surely must make this a credible fine art discipline? © Cliodhna Shaffrey, 2011. Cameron Cartiere, 'Coming in on poverty from the Cold, A Public Art History', in Cameron Cartiere and Shelly Willis (eds.), The Practice of Public Art, London/New York: Routledge, 2008, p. 3. Rosalind Krauss, examining the a2 german coursework changing dynamics of sculpture in her now-famous essay, developed the expanded field model in 1979, which is based on a series of exclusions through a binary model of architecture, not landscape and essay on poverty, landscape not architecture. Continuing a logical expansion of these sets of binaries, the and gis model is transformed into a quaternary field to mirror the essay on poverty and education original opposition and includes Site Construction, Marked Site, Sculpture, and Axiomatic structure. See Jane Rendell, 'Space, Place, and Site in borat essay Critical Spatial Arts Practice', in Cameron Cartiere and Shelly Willis (eds.), The Practice of Public Art, London/New York: Routledge, 2008, p. 36. See Robert Musil, Monuments: Posthumous Papers of a Living Author, trans.

Peter Wortsman, Hygiene: Eridanos Press, 1987. Tom Finkelpearl, Dialogues in Public Art, Interview with Maya Lin, Cambridge, MA/London: MIT Press, 2000, pp. On Poverty And Education! 117-121. Claire Bishop, 'The Social Turn: Collaboration and Its Discontents', in on geography and gis Artforum, February 2006. Also see archive/writing/view//422b08b059/?tx_pawritings_uid=4 Malcolm Miles, 'Critical Spaces: Monuments and Change', in Cameron Cartiere and Shelly Willis (eds.), The Practice of Public Art, London/New York: Routledge, 2008, pp. 67-68. Tom Finkelpearl, Dialogues in Public Art, Interview with Douglas Crimp on Tilted Arc, p. 61. (The quote is from Richard Serra, recorded in Clara Weyergraf-Serra and Martha Buskirk (eds.), The Destruction of Tilted Arc Documents, Cambridge, MA/London: MIT Press, 1991, p. 13.) Douglas Crimp recounting William Rubin (Director of Painting and Sculpture at MoMA) who suggested at the testimony that all the great avant-garde masterpieces that were opposed in their historical moment … eventually everybody would come to see that this is a great work of art. See Tom Finkelpearl's Dialogues in essay on poverty Public Art, Interview with Douglas Crimp on Tilted Arc, p. 71. Constitution! Miwon Kwon, One Place after Another, Site Specific Art and Locational Identity, Cambridge, MA/London: MIT Press, 2004, p. 109.

Grant Kester, Conversation Pieces: The Role of Dialogue in Socially-Engaged Art, California: University of San Diego, 2004. gkester/ Research%20copy/Blackwell.htm Tom Finkelpearl, Interview with Rick Lowe on Designing Project Row Houses, in Dialogues in Public Art, p. 239. Claire Bishop, 'The Social Turn', op cit. Mark Garry, 'Enabling Conversations', in Seamus Nolan, Hotel Ballymun (Exhibition Catalogue), Dublin: Breaking Ground, 2008. Ibid. Essay On Poverty And Education! Simon Sheikh, In the Place of the Public Sphere? Or the World in Fragments, Berlin: b_books, 2005. (See also – critical writing: critical-contexts/writing/archive/writing/view//30268a07af/?tx_pawritings_uid=27.)

Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.